Hi Matt, sounds like we are neighbors. I live in Cohoes.
A good road cycling club is the Mohawk Hudson Cycling Club. Some of quick rides would be good training rides for racing. The web page is www.mohawkhudsoncycling.org.
It's a nice club with rides at different levels. How ever at time it can be a bit cliqueish (sp).
RPI has a road bike club.
A strictly racing club is the Capital Bicycle Racing Club. I'm not sure of the web site. You can find it by going to the Mohawk Hudson Cycling Club site, click on cycling links, then groups. This will give a link to CBRC site and also the RPI site.
There is a racing club in Pittsfield MA. Their site is www.berkshirecycling.com
(or it might be .org). This site also gives a schedule of races in New England.
I used to be very active in the MHCC, not so much any more. If you have any other questions about cycling in the capital district, let me know.
Maybe I'll see you on the road sometime.