Today in a 22km road race up a local mountain (averaging 7.5% gradient, winning time 1:06:15 by a national champion), I was surprised to discover how much better standing to pedal is in terms of energy efficiency (endurance), and speed. You use your body weight to push the pedals down instead of leg muscle power. But I also noticed it's a relief to cease standing, and flop back onto the saddle when the slope allows. Or am I doing it wrong?
What is the best stance for standing?
My guess would be to try to get your back as vertical as possible, and CofG over the crank. (More weight used to pedal, less weight your arms have to carry.)
What determines when you stand, and on what gradients; do you use your legs until they flag and then stand, or get up before they tire?
Do you select a higher gear for standing?
Basic questions from a novice at this racing lark... so let's have your tips.