See at least post #19 in this Roundabout
Some of the following may duplicate links on sites mentioned by other posters and some links may be dead:
Search yielding at least 13 full text UK reports LINK http://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace/simple-search?
enter the search terms: pedal cycle in the "for" to retrieve numerous full-text studies including:
Motor vehicle and pedal cycle conspicuity reports from late 1990-2000's, UK:
Summary of motor vehicle and pedal cycle conspicuity: part 2 - pedal cycles
Motor vehicle and pedal cycle conspicuity: part 2 - pedal cycles.
Final report: product decoding guide
Summary of motor vehicle and pedal cycle conspicuity: part 2 - pedal cycles.
part 3 - retroreflective and fluorescent materials: conspicuity of markings
part 3 - retroreflective and fluorescent materials, discomfort glare of markings
part 3 - retroreflective and fluorescent materials, final report
part 3: retroflective and fluorescent materials, disability glare of red markings
part 3 - retroreflective and fluorescent materials, validation report
part 3 - retroreflective and fluorescent materials, disability glare of graphic markings
part 3: Retro-reflective and fluorescent materials. Summary report
Motor vehicle and pedal cycle conspicuity: part 1- vehicle mounted warning beacons. Summary report
part 3: Vehicle mounted warning beacons. Final report.
Interventions for increasing pedestrian and cyclist visibility for the prevention of death and injuries.(Cochrane review) LINK
Effects of retroreflector positioning on nighttime recognition of pedestrians 1995 LINK
Conspicuity and bicycle crashes: preliminary findings of the Taupo Bicycle Study. Injury Prevention 2008;14:11-18.
Full text & link to PDF: http://injuryprevention.bmj.com/cgi/...t/full/14/1/11
One informative response at this link reads:
As Thornley et al  indicate, the use of high-conspicuity aids by cyclists must be beneficial: motorists can only avoid collision with the cyclist if they can detect the cyclist.
Unfortunately, high-conspicuity aids are not likely to affect the visibility of the roadway environment around the cyclist, so motorists' perceptions of the cyclist's motion and distance will remain poor in conditions of night, fog and precipitation. Laboratory evidence shows unequivocally that perception of motion requires that the moving object be viewed against a visible background of other objects; without a visible background, the threshold for detecting the object's motion is extremely high .
One of the major cues for distance - motion parallax - is also dependent on a visible background. Motion parallax refers to movement of the retinal images of viewed objects as a result of the observer's movement; for example, viewing a distant point entails rates of retinal image motion inversely proportional to the distance of each of the objects from the observer. However, motion parallax is ineffective for perceiving an isolated object's distance . Hence, the cyclist - for example, performing manoeuvres to left or right at a road junction - must be viewed against a visible roadway environment for motion parallax to be effective .
The argument presented here is underscored by the clear effectiveness of street-lighting in the reduction of pedestrian collisions with motor vehicles  - the pedestrian AND the roadway environment are made more conspicuous. This outcome must extend to cyclists.
The conclusion must be that the value of high-conspicuity aids should not be overstated: fundamental aspects of the motorist's perception must remain weak.
1. Thornley SJ, Woodward A, Langley JD, Ameratunga SN, Rodgers A. Conspicuity and bicycle crashes: preliminary findings of the Taupo Bicycle Study. Inj Prev 2008;14:11-18.
2. Reinhardt-Rutland AH. Induced movement in the visual modality: an overview. Psychol Bull 1988;103:57-72.
3. Reinhardt-Rutland AH. Motion parallax. In Craighead WE, Nemeroff CB (eds.). Encyclopedia of psychology and behavioral science (pp 977-979). New York: Wiley.
4. Reinhardt-Rutland AH. Some implications of motion-perception evidence and theory for road accidents. J Int Assoc of Traffic and Safety Sci 1992;16:9-14
5. Retting RA, Ferguson SA, McCartt AT. A review of evidence-based traffic engineering measures designed to reduce pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes. Am J Public Health 2003; 93: 1456-1463
Bicycle Reflector Project (CPSC)
Safety in numbers in Australia- more walker & bicylists, safer walking & bicycling
better resolution of the graphs http://www.cyclehelmets.org/papers/c2022.pdf
Review of Basic Research in Bicycle Traffic Science, Traffic Operations, and Facility Design. DEAN TAYLOR AND W. JEFFREY DAVIS
Conversions of Wide Curb Lanes: The Effect on Bicycle and Motor Vehicle Interactions. Transportation Record 2005 Vol 1939, 37-44
Wide Outside Through Lanes: Effective Design of Integrated Passing Facilities
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SAFETY MEASURES AT RAILWAY LEVEL CROSSINGS ON ROAD USER BEHAVIOUR
Richard van der Horst, Paul Bakker
Rethinking Geometric Design Standards for Bike Paths
J Transportation Engineering 2007
Bicycle & Pedestrian Plan Technical Memorandum 2: Existing Conditions Report Pensacola FL 2005
Statewide Safety Study of Bicycles and Pedestrians on Freeways, Expressways, Toll Bridges, and Tunnels, 2001
Measures to promote cyclist safety and mobility 2001
Benefit-Cost Analysis of Added Bicycle Phase at Existing Signalized Intersection
Improving bicycling and pedestrian safety, NY 2002
Cost-benefit analysis of measures for vulnerable road users. Promotion of Measures for Vulnerable Road Users
Contract No. RO-97-RS.2112
Benefit-Cost Analysis of Added Bicycle Phase at Existing Signalized
UK Department for Transportation reports:
Pedal Bicycles (Safety) Regulations 2002
Pedal Bicycles (Safety) Regulations 2002 - consultation paper
Bicycle helmets: review of effectiveness (No.30)
The proposed revised Highway Code and the rules for cyclists
Guidance about lights on pedal bicycles LINK http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/roads/vehi...sonpedalbi4556
Guidance about the supply and sale of pedal cycles
The Pedal Bicycles (Safety) Regulations 2003
Adjacent and Shared Use Facilities for Pedestrians and Cyclists