Yup. Sure can. Happened to me on my tour this summer up the Maine coast. Something put a small slash in the sidewall of my flatproof tire
. We were just settling in for the night when we heard a loud *BANG!*. Scary. Since we too are poor college students, it hurt to use a one-dollar bill as a boot, but it was all we had. Hey, it worked. I used it for a couple months, later switched to a granola bar wrapper, which I am still using today.
Anyway, it doesn't take a big hole for the tube to bulge through and eventually burst, especially with a high-pressure tire.