Join Date: Feb 2009
Location: Columbus, OH
Bikes: A beautiful columbus steel frame, 1986 Schwinn Voyageur touring bike, Currently Undergoing Overhaul
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No, 10 speed means 10 cogs in back. It's the spacing and number of the cogs that make it compatible. You could respace your frame to 130mm, get a new wheelset that accepts a cassette, put a 10 speed cassette on, get a new chain, new cranks (new bottom bracket to support it), and obviously the brifters.
By my, and many others calculations, done right (decent components, not half-assing the work), you would be looking at a thousand dollar investment, assuming you do the work yourself. Lots of people have done it, but unless you really really really like your bike, or find some amazingly good deals, you may be better off getting a new bike.
So, is it worth it? That's a call only you can make . . .