Join Date: Apr 2009
Location: New Rochelle, NY
Bikes: too many bikes from 1967 10s (5x2)Frejus to a Sumitomo Ti/Chorus aluminum 10s (10x2), plus one non-susp mtn bike I use as my commuter
Mentioned: 22 Post(s)
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Too many questions, but taking them in order.
Measurement is the best way to know, but you can also make an excellent qualified guess by looking at the right side thread. There are only two likely possibilities. If it has a left thread on the right, it's almost certainly British (now ISO, JIS is the same too). If it has a right thread, it's Italian. this isn't 100% certain, but the likelihood of Swiss or French threads is too low to worry about.
You cannot use a 1/8" chainring with a derailleur and cassette. That requires a 3/32" chainring.
Yes, there are 103mm BBs out there, you just need to shop for them.
I can't predict the chainline, you'll have to read the info that came with the crank. Usually if you use the specified spindle length you get acceptable chainline. But don't forget that you need to switch chainrings in any case.
One other note, and please don't get offended. Mix and matching components creatively is perfectly fine if you know what you're doing. But if you don't, it's best to stay on well trod paths.
An ounce of diagnosis is worth a pound of cure.
“Never argue with an idiot. He will only bring you down to his level and beat you with experience.”, George Carlin
“One accurate measurement is worth a thousand expert opinions”
- Adm Grace Murray Hopper - USN
WARNING, I'm from New York. Thin skinned people should maintain safe distance