The first pic is a steerer mounted brake cable holder.
The Second pic shows a Brake straddle cable, Straddle cabe holder, Crimp on cable end, 2 Brake lever shims(optional), 1 peice of bar tape for the brake lever, 2 decals, 2 Allen wrenches, 3 stem (or brake) bolts (maybe), 2 Plastic screws?, and 1 Hex bolt?
Spec' Tarmac (road), Spec' Secteur Disc (commuter & tourer), Salsa Mamasita (MTB), CoMo Speedster (tandem), Surly Big Dummy (cargo), Airnimal (folder), a train pass, and NO car :)
I would suggest letting a professional mechanic setup your brakes correctly for you to make sure that the bike is safe to ride. If you don't even know what the parts are then I'm not sure that you're sufficiently capable of doing this job.