"Uh-uh. Respek Knuckles."
Join Date: Jun 2005
Bikes: '06 LeMond Versailles, '04 S&M Beringer, '03 Quamen Bowls, '68 Raleigh Grand Prix (converted to fixed gear)
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You probably lost something while taking it apart, then. Oh, and don't lose those 'circle things with balls in them'. There should be 2, one in the upper cup and one in the lower. Those are your bearings, referred to as 'caged' bearings because the circle thing (cage) holds them together so they're not currently bouncing all over your floor right now.
If the top of the stem is below the top of your fork's steerer tube, you're just tightening the fork against itself and the headset will stay loose. To fix this, add spacers (carbon fiber, of course).