Ok here is the question. Same rider, bike, backpack, all the same and they ride same route, and weather/temp. And all identical but 1 trip the weight load is in backpack and the other trip the same load is attached to rack. Total weight both times are same just distributed different either on rider and bike is light or on bike and rider is light.
As for me I feel faster carrying load in my backpack and not on track. "I think it's a mental thing."
What are your thoughts or has there been funded studies?