Bikes are regulated but no one follows the rules, so take these with a grain of salt. From the top of my head:
- Red light and stop signs are the same as cars
- Keep right unless you turn left
- You're supposed to take the bike lane if there's one on the street.
- Maximum 15 cyclists in a group, riding in single file
- No right turn on red on Montreal island, allowed elsewhere unless there's a sign
- Must have rear brake that can block the wheel
- Must have rear light at night
- Must have a front light that allows to distinguish a form from 10 meters
- Must have wheel reflectors, amber in front, red in rear
- Must have white reflectors in front, red in rear
- Some bike path have a 20km/h speed limit
Those are the main I can think of. Like I said, nobody follows them, from the reflectors to white front light to stopping at red lights. I wouldn't pay any attention about the reflector rules. Have your blinkies on during the day if you wish. Some lanes are bidirectionnal on one side of the street. I find them dangerous so I just avoid streets with those lanes in general, or just be careful.
The only thing that might get you a ticket is if you're going across the Jacques-Cartier bridge. There's an intersection on the bridge where cyclists are supposed to dismount and walk. It was never enforced until last week. They decided to harass cyclists and had police give warnings and tickets to those who didn't walk across the intersection. Made cyclists angry. Don't know if the cops are still there and I believe they are dressed in civil. I rarely ride there so I'm just reporting from what I heard.