I use a Garmin Oregon 550t, and have everything you want except cadence. I think I'll be getting a sensor for that pretty soon. One of the main reasons I went with this over an Edge is because I also use mine kayaking, and want that to work as conveniently as possible.
There are a lot of bike computers that are drastically cheaper than a GPS receiver, but I don't know of any of them that will tell you everything you want to know. It's a pretty involved list. There are plenty of Cateye and Sigma (etc) computers that will tell you your cadence. There are watches with heart rate monitors built in ( although this seems a little better than worthless, since you want to easily check it live ) that won't give you cadence. To get the full list, though, I think you need a GPS receiver. Or patience until someone wires a cell phone to work with the other stuff that's already on the market.