I was going to join the thread on Tennis Elbow pain below, but thought I shouldn't highjack that thread, as mine is not TE, I don't think. I have had that before, from winching* on a weeklong sailing trip. That, for me at least, seemed to come from within the elbow joint, it would wake me up in the middle of the night.
What I am finding, with just a few weeks of riding my Miyata 210 road bike (drop bars) on short rides, up to about 15 miles, is a pain in the soft tissue on the inside of my elbows. It feels fine when riding, or afterward, but the next day it's a little sensitive and can flare up when I lift anything, and this persists for the next few days, though not enough to keep me off the bike.
I am a noob to riding on drops, really a noob to serious cycling. I know I need to adjust my position and fit, esp as at first I was keeping my arms locked straight, an obvious no-no. I hadn't expected to like the drops and thought I'd change them out, but actually I like leaning over and don't have any issues with my back, etc. And of course there are the flats, hoods, etc. which have to put a lot less stress on the arms.
Not to highjack the OP's post but I wonder if anyone has had this non-TE elbow pain and if so did you get rid of it?
btw: this is my first post here; I've been on BF for a few months but mostly in C&V as I am definitely Vintage and possibly even Classic.
*spelled correctly, 'wenching' being another activity beloved by sailors.