GBCB's post has good info. Tokyo and Osaka - plenty of people love living in each.
Cost of living is high in either but you'll manage. Millions get by fine in either city.
Patent trainee is a decent job. You'll manage a tiny but tidy apartment, just like literally millions of others.
You'll neither have, need, nor want a car.
Of course you'll want to learn Japanese. It's hard but you'll be able, and meanwhile you'll manage. Get a book and learn the katakana in one or two weekends. You'll get an immediate working vocabulary of several hundred words - because katakana is the phonetic script used for words borrowed from other languages - the overwhelming majority from English.
You'll make lots of Japanese friends, but Tokyo and Osaka each have enough young friendly foreigners for you to blow off some steam with from time to time.
c) How are foreigners treated?
* I am a 6 foot 2 caucasian, white as the snow and athletic *sounds like a dating profile
No one will mess with you, and as long as you're not a total dork you'll be needing to schedule dates on your Outlook calendar just to try and keep track of them. If you are a total dork you'll still find someone pretty who'll love you regardless.
If you have any inclination whatsoever, do it. Or spend the rest of your life kicking yourself.