We "recover" a lot of bikes, and very seldom are they entered into the NCIC (National Crime Information Center). This is because so few people make a note of their serial number! I've taken many dozens of stolen bike reports, and the number of people that could tell you the serial number is very small.
For that matter, most can't tell you anything about the bike at all. Frame material? "Dunno". Frame size? "Dunno". Hehe, only the enthusiasts.
I have had some luck by calling the bike shops that leave a sticker on the bike, often they will have a record of who bought it. One shop had the records, but only filed under the owner's name. Not of much use when you don't know the owner...
Have the local police run the serial number, that's about as far as you can go towards authentication.