Given that your chain is made from steel, solvents such as mineral spirits, gasoline, WD40, etc. will do no damage. In order to damage your chain, you would need to use a substance that reacts with steel. I would avoid things like muriatic acid, bleach, and dishwashing detergent - all of which can be corrosive to various metals.
Generally, you can just use a little common sense. Avoid using gasoline or other highly volatile fluids to reduce the risk of serious fire. After all, it's just a bike chain. They're cheap.