"True" racing and "True" touring are two distinctly different activities. Most of the folks who actually enter actual races in my area enter short races with lots of sharp corners. The sort of race where a short wheelbase and ultra-light wheels and tires are an advantage. Some folks think a lighter carbon or aluminum frame is better than a steel frame in short fast races...they are probably wrong...but the bikes built for racing most commonly have aluminum or carbon frames. Geometry that favors quick steering reactions over stability under load.
A long loaded tour is most comfortable on a bike designed for loaded touring (where the rider, equipment, and gear are a total load of over 200 or 250 pounds). Built for front and rear racks, plus fenders. Long wheelbase. Chainstays set up to handle 35mm tires. Wide, sturdy rims, 36 or 40 spokes in back, 36 spokes in front. Steel frame. Stable geometry.
In the 1980's, bike companies made some bikes that were a nice blend of these features. Very light steel frames that could handle racks, fat tires, and fenders. Yet, with a set of light wheels and light tires, a good racing bike. I don't know of any "factory" bikes of that sort today. Some of the "high hand" custom frame makers still make "sport touring" frames though.
If I was going to ride just ONE bike (a horrible fate to contemplate) I would probably have a touring bike, such as the Trek 520, or the Fuji Tourer. If I had some reason to want to ride fast, I would buy an extra set of wheels with light rims and light 25mm tires. Then, I use the light wheels for faster riding, and use the touring wheels when carrying loads.