I live in the Peoria area, although near Dunlap, on the north side of Peoria itself. I bike commute all year round. There are limited bike facilities, and it can take a bit of work to find a good route.
East Peoria is an old river town, so the roads largely follow the river and the bluffs. As such, there's not always a nice grid of streets. I've ridden in East Peoria and have been able to get around, so commuting should be possible.
The local bike club for recreational riding is the Illinois Valley Wheelmen, and might have some useful resources...
drop me a line if you have any questions... kurtsj at mtco dot com