There is a tendancy to class all winter riding as arctic riding. As our Texan friend suggests, winter is often just cool or cold rather than freezing, so you dont need to go overboard on the gear.
For my winter riding (0C to 12C) i like some low-cost polyester trackster by Ron Hill. These have zipped pockets and are std equipment for any runner, climber or outdoor person in the UK. There is probably an equiv no-name label in the US for people with more sense than money.
If its not raining, I wear a water-resistant but fully windproof jacket. As a base layer, a long sleeved hiking top is good, you dont need all the cycling features like rear pockets. You can tune the insulation with mid-layers of wool or fleece. I like sleeveless wooly jumpers for fine control.
Balaclavas are for freezing conditions, but a neck-warmer is useful for merely cold.
You need full finger gloves and suitable footwear. Woolen socks, non-mesh shoes or neoprene booties.