I moved to Golden last summer, you will love the area for riding. For racing check out the American Cycling Association's web pages, the organization that runs most of the racing in CO as opposed to USCF in many areas. I've seen that there is goign to be a weekly training crit in Golden this summer, as well as handful of races and hill climbs. The Mines holds a two day race in the early spring as well.
I haven't found a club so I can't help you there, but the folks that hang out here are fun to ride with and have started getting rides together pretty frequently.
If you have any questions feel free to ask, there are plenty of BF memebers that are in the western suburbs.
Again, welcome, you will be amazed at the bike traffic you will see here in our little town. And if some guy in a Tinkov jersey flys past you down Lookout mountain, yeah, its likely him. Or if you see a group of guys wearing any number of of US pro jerseys, they likely aren't posers. I have seen the slipstream/healthnet/name it guys quite a bit as well.