I haven't done all of this, but if I was to do that trip, I would head to Moab, then the back way over the LaSals to Naturita or the adventure cycling western express to cortez. From there you have about a dozen options on how to get over the rockies, depending on the weather, how much climbing you like to do, how much time you have, etc. Too many different ways to mention. If you get a AAA map of Colorado, any across CO is OK except I-70. Look for the 'scenic routes'
Personally I would take the long way - Durango - Pagosa- Lake City- Gunnison- Montrose- Aspen- Leadville- Frisco- Granby- Estes Park- Boulder. But that's really indirect.
Look at some old Bike Tour of Colorado and Ride the Rockies routes for other ideas.
Pretty much any way you get across colorado is fine, I like the middle/south part of the rockies better than the wyonming boarder part, but that's just me.