pan y agua
Join Date: Aug 2005
Bikes: Wilier Zero 7; Merlin Extralight; Co-Motion Robusta; Schwinn Paramount; Motobecane Phantom Cross; Cervelo P2; Motebecane Ti Fly 29er; Calfee Dragonfly Tandem
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Specifically in regard to the TDF, the teams with automatic invites are "Pro Tour " teams. The UCI mandates minimum salaries for Pro Tour team riders. It used to be approximately $40,000. ( I would imagine tha figure is now off with excnage rates, and the passage of time).
While the riders have to be paid the minimum salary, many riders make substantially more, and team leaders can have salaries in the 7 figures.
As for prize money, teams traditionally pool all their prize money, and split it amongst the team, either by race, or for the whole season. (although there have been some notable exceptions (see Andy Hampsten in the Giro.)