I'd be somewhat concerned about the strength of the frame and especially the fork, depends on what road bike you're using. A CX frame is more like a MTB frame in terms of strength, but with a more road-like geometry. If you have a touring bike you'd probably be okay. The other major problem would be tire clearance. My road bike will not fit a 32c tire in the back, especially if it get some mud on it. Last issue is probably gearing, again depending on your bike, if you run a compact up front, you'll be fine, otherwise your gonna be running with your bike a lot.
Realistically, if you think your bike can handle it, go for it. EuroCross was invented long before any of the canti brakes and special gearing and forks and whatnot modern CX uses. I promise you'll have a ton of fun...
p.s. I use road the same wheels on my CX bike as road bike. They work just fine.