I'm not a recumbent rider, so am not sure if this is a common style of bent bike. I've seen this guy a couple of times on a local MUP rail-trail. It's about the longest, lowest recumbent that I've ever seen -- coming at you from a distance you have to wonder just what the heck it is!
It's the "Formula 1 racer" of bikes, I guess. The rider is basically lying flat on his back with his butt about 2" off the pavement. If I stood next to it, the top of his helmet wouldn't be much above my knee. It certainly looks like a bad angle to have your neck at, but the opposite stretch from me on my conventional road bike.
It looks like it would be fun to try -- so low there'd be about zero wind resistance -- but I think I'd be really nervous about riding it on a road since you'd be several feet below the viewpoint of the SUV drivers. It also looks to me to be a bit wobbly due to small-diameter wheels and the basic geometry, and maybe a bit hard to hold up at a stop since you're almost sitting on the ground to begin with.
So could this be a commercially-available bike, or is it more likely a one-off custom? It almost looks like something you'd put a fairing on and go for some sort of speed record, but then again what do I know.