Participants performed a warm-up by pedaling at 70, 90, and 110 rpm at a power output of 100 W for 2 min at each cadence. Participants were then asked to perform four trials of pedaling at 90 rpm and 200 W on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer (Lode Excalibur, Groningen, The Netherlands), which was calibrated before the start of the study using a dynamic calibrator (Model 17801, Vacumed, CA). For each trial, participants were instructed to employ a different pedaling technique. In one condition, participants were asked to use their preferred pedaling technique (preferred). In a second condition, participants were asked to pedal in circles and to concentrate on the transition phases through top dead center and bottom dead center of the crank cycle (circling). In a third condition, participants were instructed to emphasize an active pull during the upstroke of the crank cycle (pulling). Finally, they were instructed to emphasize the pushing action during the downstroke of the crank cycle (pushing). These instructions were reiterated throughout each exercise bout. The order of the conditions was randomized and counterbalanced. Each bout lasted 6 min, and 6 min of passive rest separated consecutive trials. Approximately 30 min after the final trial, the participants performed a maximal incremental exercise test (starting at 150-200 W and increasing 10-20 W·min-1) for the determination of V·O2max (defined as the highest V·O2 averaged for 1 min of exercise) and Wpeak (defined as the sum of the final completed workload plus the fraction of the partly completed workload performed before exhaustion). The participants refrained from caffeine for 12 h and stressful exercise for 48 h before exercise.