Honking drivers see you
Join Date: Nov 2004
Location: Houston, TX
Bikes: Fuji Track, KHS Witch Doctor, Balance AL 750, Tank Mod Trials Bike
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Is this an old used hub, or a new one? Try cranking down on the nuts (on both sides) and then loosen them up enough to let the hub spin freely. If you tighten too much, you'll end up cracking the races or ruining your sealed bearings after a while. do you have two sets of nuts on each side of the hub (aside from your nut that goes on the outside of the dropout)? The hub shouldn't loosen itself during riding if you do, as the outermost nut will keep the nut up against the bearings from loosening themselves.
Is the hub space for 120mm? Usually running a 120mm hub on a 10 spd isn't too big of a problem chain-line wise. You can even fudge a few mm's either way. If your chainline's off a lot, in the least, you'll have a noisy drivetrain that'll wear down quickly, or in the worst case, you run the risk of throwing your chain at the most inopportune time.
Your wheel size shouldn't be a problem, but if you're talking about the current standard dropout that's vertical, you'll have a hard time dialing in your chain tension. If you do manage to get your chainline decent on a vertical dropout, through some magic gear ratio, without a chain tensioner, you'll have to really watch that chain and change it out when you start going slack. I ran a "magic gear" on my Vertical dropout mtb and wound up wrecking my rear hub races after a few months.
If you can't figure out the problem, a new wheel may be in order, or some kind of derailleur-type tensioner, like a Surly will help.
Conversions are tough, and sometimes you end up putting a lot of money into them that would be better spent on a frame/bike set up as SS from the beginning.