Typical road geometry is 73 degree head tube, 73 degree seat tube with 40-45mm rake depending on how you want to tweak the trail. This is "all-around" road geometry, and has been more or less the standard for a long time because it works. The 73 degree seat tube keeps things a little more comfortable because it means inherently longer chainstays and fits a large amount of riders for fore-aft seat position. The 73 HT/40-45mm works very well for how one would want a road bike to handle on the road. The greater-BB drop (lower BB height) means more dampening inherent in the longer stays, as well as lower center of gravity which is much desired when doing long, winding descents.
Steepening the head tube and seat tube/lessening the rake results in a tighter wheelbase, more stiffness inherent in the geometry (a steeper HT/less rake will give less dampening and more road feel up front, while also stiffening the front end; a steeper ST/shorter chain stay means more of the "acceleration-happy" feel and less dampening) and more "criterium" geometry, less suited for riding all day in the saddle. Crit geometry is somewhere between traditional road and traditional track geometry.
Read the geometry chapter of the Paterek Manual for Framebuilders for a good expansion on all this stuff. Also, Dave Moulton's bike blog is a good resource, as is frameforum.org