I'll chime in because some of my experience from this year is similar to your set up and what you have.
When I was young (14 years thru mid-twenties) I did annual summer tours of 1-4 weeks in duration. I used the standard steel frame bike of the 70's, stuck a rack on, and somehow cobbled together a tent/bag rig, plus some Bellwether or Cannondale panniers. I was poor as dirt, a kid, yet I pulled it together and had a blast.
Jump ahead like 3 decades:
I get a new bike (Felt F-65) and me and my gal get this notion to do a week long, supported tour here in Wisconsin bikenorthwoods.com
. They haul it all, I just got a front bag to hold snacks, flat repair, etc. The Felt has NO braze-ons or eyelets for anything. the ride was Fun as hell, EXCEPT after a week on what is basically a road/performance bike, my body was cranky and my hands a bit sore (could have been some fit issue, but I think it was more that this is a day-rider bike made out of stiff aluminum)
I sold the felt (at 50, I just don't feel like the 22 MPH club rider thing was my gig), and I acquired a Jamis Aurora, used, which I am using daily as a commuter, but will double as a 'Credit card tourer' or, fully loaded if I ever get that crazy idea in my brain. Ya gotta have a rack on a bike on tour.
As far as blowing lots of dough on gear: you can do that or you can spend time to rig stuff together 2nd hand, hand me down, borrowed, etc.
The point is ya gotta think of the long haul, and for the long haul, simple is better for touring and repairing while on the road. An older steel frame Trek/Miyata/Nishiki, even a friction shifting 6-7 speed is fine (mine is an 8 speed, bar end shifters... who needs steenkin' 9-10 speed cassette?). It's not a race; most of the time, you find a gear and you stay in that gear for miles, go lower n the hills, and when the hill get too steep, you get off and walk and listen to the birds and have alook around. Comfortable and relaxed geometry, more upright are key.
I will say that doing the week ride, and hanging out with other riders did help me get a POV on how it could be done. See what bikes folks are riding (like old Schwinn LeTours, old Treks, even no-names and such), and what kind of gear they actually bring along helped for the future. And it was fun to ride with the group (the BNW group is small, under 350, so there isn't that cattle call lines for food and such like some big rides).
Acht! I rambled!