If you're a newbie to the track like me, any wheel will do. I got one of those prebuilt yucky M13 rimmed, no name cartridge bearing hubbed wheels (full retail is something like $80 for the front wheel), stuck it on my bike, put my bike in the car, and went racing the first time I rode it (it was pinging when I was warming up). It was fine. Heck, I don't know if it's true, I just know the tire doesn't hit the fork crown.
For the record I did a 12 lap scratch race, 3 match sprints, and about 15 laps of a miss and out. Won the scratch, won 2 of the 3 sprints, and died in the miss and out (5th).
I have a nicer rear wheel (I built it a long time ago to race - M17 tubular rim, 19mm tire, 32H) but again, it really doesn't matter.
I can't find my scale but I know my track bike is noticeably heavier than my road bike. Like by a lot. Doesn't matter.
Of course I was at the shop today drooling over a nice carbon $1275 track bike (complete). So even though the bike really doesn't matter at a newbie level, I still want to get a nicer bike
Here in Japan, keirin riders do 200m in 10.8 sec on 36 hole 3X wheels with box-section rims. The most important thing is the legs.
If/when you have a really important race, upgrade just your tyres and tubes.
this is possibly the worst advice I have ever seen posted here. Yes a professional cyclist or even a really really strong amateur can ride break 11 with slow wheels. They and pretty much anyone else will ride much much faster with aero wheels though. For most people in the low 12s the difference is a a few tenths. That is huge. The tires and tubes are the other hand are inconsequential in comparison.
Since the season is basically over wait till next year and get some h+sons or try to find cheap used carbon
this is possibly the worst advice I have ever seen posted here.
You haven't been here long have you. Traditionally, sprinters have used wheels built 4x with 36 hole large flange hubs and 300+ gram tubular rims, but that is just tradition. All you need is what some of the other posters have said, then there is the ideal, as dutret is trying to point out. There is a difference between need and want.
those wheels were only 'traditional' because they were generally what was routinely available for both road and track. it doesn't mean by any stretch of the imagination that with the choices available today they are even remotely desirable (or wanted).
i'll give you my fairly direct evidence as it pertains to me.
i've got a nice set of 30mm handbuilt aluminium track wheels that are laced 20/20 in 2 cross with cx rays, running continental supersonics.
i just bought a rear disc (miche supertype) that i have a vittoria chrono on.
in training i don't have a facility to time my 200's. i download my polar data and look at the max speed an make an approximation of my time (it's all comparative for me so it's reasonably valid, plus it matches the timed runs i've done). these are all solo times and generally i'm doing 5-7 runs in session all with similar results.
i have about 60 data points over the past 3 months using an identical setup including the gear (98 inches). using the aluminium wheels. max speeds are generally around 58.0km/h this equates to 200/(58000/3600) = 12.4.
in changing absolutely nothing other than putting the disc on, my speeds average at around 60.1km/h which equates to 12.0.
so simply putting a disc on there gives me 4/10 in training repeats.
oldsprinter's point is that if you can't break 12.0 on 32/36 spokes you'd benefit more from better training than worrying about wheels. Nice wheels are icing on the cake...bake the cake first.
I realize for you buying training improvements from some sketchy dr is an option but for most people the two aren't direct trade offs. Even if we value training time at what they could make working many people who can't break 12 willl benefit more from wheels than spending a little bit more time on the bike.... Especially since wheels will last for years.