Faster but still slow
Join Date: Jun 2006
Bikes: Trek 830 circa 1993 and a Fuji WSD Finest 1.0 2006
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Couldn't get the whole study since it is in russian but here is the abstract. Seems to give an okay summary of the two.
Ukr Biokhim Zh. 2005 Jul-Aug;77(4):30-50.
[Vitamine-like substances L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine: from biochemical studies to medicine]
[Article in Russian]
Recently reported data clarify our understanding of the molecular aspects of carnitine in medicine. Carnitine is a compound necessary for the transport of acyl-CoA across the inner mitochondrial membrane for their beta-oxidation. Only L-isomer of carnitine is biologically active. The D-isomer may actually compete with L-carnitine for absorption and transport, increasing the risk of carnitine deficiency. By interaction with CoA, carnitine is involved in the intermediary metabolism by modulating free CoA pools in the cell. Detoxification properties and anabolic, antiapoptotic and neuroprotective roles of carnitine is presented. Carnitine deficiency occurs as a primary genetic defect of carnitine transport and secondary to a variety of genetic and acquired disorders. The pathophysiological states associated with carnitine deficiency have been summarized. L-Carnitine is effective for the treatment of primary and secondary carnitine deficiencies. Acetyl-L-carnitine improves cognition in the brain, significantly reversed age-associated decline in mitochondrial membrane potential and improved ambulatory activity. The therapeutic effects of carnitine and acetylcarnitine are discussed.
In a number of studies I looked at, acetyl-L-carnitine was neuro protective in a number of different models of alzheimers, diabetic neuropathy, neuro toxicity(paclitaxel) and radiation. It also protected against oxidative stress. Most of the studies, and there are a lot, demonstrated these positive effects with acetyl-L-carnitine.
There was also a study done with cyclists, but I don't have a subscription to that journal so I can't get the whole study. But if you really care, you can always order it yourself. Here is the reference
White LJ, Robergs RA, Sibbitt WL Jr, Gasparovic CM, Petropoulos H, Brooks WM.
Accumulation of acetyl groups following cycling: a 1H-MR spectroscopy study.
Int J Sports Med. 2006 Feb;27(2):100-4.
PMID: 16475054 [PubMed - in process]