All endurance cardio is catabolic. You can minimize it with an excess of calories, particularly protein and carbs, but you can't stop it.
However, doing high intensity intervals, even though it's cardio, can both build vo2max as well as muscle mass, provided the intervals are kept short and intense. It's a paradox that hasn't exactly been explained 100 percent, but think about it this way: while both marathon runners and olympic sprinters are physically fit and can process oxygen efficiently, who has the better body? Sprinters have huge upper and lower bodies, while marathon runners look emaciated.
So regardless of the science, rel world proof is in the pudding, as it were.