The reference is to a much smaller set of cyclists that use roads and imposing a social agreement that in order to use a public resource where there is a lot of group interaction, one should have some set of skills/knowledge which make that interaction operate in a smooth fashion.
Although I agree that if bicycle licenses are out of the question, then trying to specifically target "road" cyclists would be difficult and probably not very efficient. Regarding the comment, I was not trying to tell cyclists that they need an education ... I was pointing out that if someone is a proponent for motorists to be better educated about interacting with cyclists and cyclists themselves are big part of that interaction, then it seems appropriate that one also be a proponent of educating cyclists.
Fatalities is only one metric and I think that it is a poor one given the magnitude cycling versus auto-driving and that my argument is that there are a lot of costs outside of the direct injury/mortality to the cyclist. Some of the costs I described are probably more of a function of whether there is an accident or not. Moreover, some of the costs described are borne by individuals other than the cyclist. If cyclist behavior increases travel time of others, clogs court systems, takes the attention of public servants, and so on, that is a burden on our resources.
For example, if a cyclist fails to stop at a red light and is killed in an accident, we all lose. The police officer has to spend time administering the accident instead of doing something else more productive. The ambulance that arrives could have been attending to and transporting another individual. Any psychological trauma that the motorist suffers from killing the cyclist is a cost. Whatever traffic is slowed as a consequence of the accident is a cost. I can go on. Given that labor is often a huge portion of many productive activities, all of this human time wasted is probably significant. Furthermore, I believe these costs will be similar if a motorist is at fault versus a cyclist is at fault.
Since we already have a Department of Motor Vehicles--at least, I believe that every state has one--I don't see the administration of bicycle licenses as a huge marginal cost to the system.