To winterize your bike, pack the bearings fairly full of grease. It will ooze out when you spin. If you have cheap hubs with poor seals, this will prevent winter crud from entering.
Grease all metal-metal contacts (stem/post) and threads inc pedals. Use full-length cable outers if possible and grease well.
Clean and wax the frame, wax any exposed cable inner and bolt heads. Wax is a cleaner anti-rust than grease that will not contaminate your clothing.
If the frame is steel, think about the inside. Spray it with WD40 or splash out on some weiggle framesaver. I use WD40 into all the small vents in the tubing.
Make sure you start the winter with tyres, tubes and cables in good order. These are the most likely failures, usually when it is cold, dark and wet.
Spiked tyres depend on your local roads and ice conditions. There are some DIY instructions around.