Go Back  Bike Forums > Bike Forums > Bicycle Mechanics
Reload this Page >

Can you boil a waxed chain safely?

Notices
Bicycle Mechanics Broken bottom bracket? Tacoed wheel? If you're having problems with your bicycle, or just need help fixing a flat, drop in here for the latest on bicycle mechanics & bicycle maintenance.

Can you boil a waxed chain safely?

Old 11-07-19, 09:16 PM
  #1  
smashndash
Senior Member
Thread Starter
 
Join Date: Feb 2018
Posts: 821

Bikes: 2017 Specialized Allez Sprint Comp

Mentioned: 11 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 484 Post(s)
Liked 111 Times in 83 Posts
Can you boil a waxed chain safely?

Hi everyone,

I use moltenspeedwax on my chain. Before rewaxing, Iíd like to take off as much of the old wax and gunk if possible in order to reduce the amount of crud in my slow cooker. Iíd rather not have to clean out my slow cooker and discard a ton of wax.

Can I dunk my chain into boiling water, swirl it around a bit, then pat it dry with a clean rag before dipping in wax? Iím afraid that bits of wax collecting on the pot on the stove might catch fire.

Anyone know how to quickly and effectively clean a waxed chain? I am not looking to use any sort of solvents.
smashndash is offline  
Old 11-07-19, 09:22 PM
  #2  
AnkleWork
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2013
Location: Llano Estacado
Posts: 3,702

Bikes: old clunker

Mentioned: 13 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 684 Post(s)
Likes: 0
Liked 96 Times in 74 Posts
Originally Posted by smashndash View Post
...
Can I dunk my chain into boiling water, swirl it around a bit, then pat it dry with a clean rag before dipping in wax? Iím afraid that bits of wax collecting on the pot on the stove might catch fire.
...
Permission granted.
AnkleWork is offline  
Old 11-07-19, 09:44 PM
  #3  
ThermionicScott 
7-speed cultist
 
ThermionicScott's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2011
Location: CID
Posts: 20,006

Bikes: 1991 Bianchi Eros, 1964 Armstrong, 1988 Diamondback Ascent, 1988 Bianchi Premio, 1987 Bianchi Sport SX, 1980s Raleigh mixte (hers)

Mentioned: 86 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 2742 Post(s)
Liked 657 Times in 458 Posts
Originally Posted by smashndash View Post
Hi everyone,

I use moltenspeedwax on my chain. Before rewaxing, Iíd like to take off as much of the old wax and gunk if possible in order to reduce the amount of crud in my slow cooker. Iíd rather not have to clean out my slow cooker and discard a ton of wax.

Can I dunk my chain into boiling water, swirl it around a bit, then pat it dry with a clean rag before dipping in wax? Iím afraid that bits of wax collecting on the pot on the stove might catch fire.

Anyone know how to quickly and effectively clean a waxed chain? I am not looking to use any sort of solvents.
Like @AnkleWork, I give you my permission to try it, but don't expect miracles. What'll happen is that the boiling water will melt some of the wax out of the chain (don't use that pot for food anymore), but will also leave warm water behind to rust the inside of your chain before it can fully dry.

If you're going to do wax, the best plan is to commit to wax.
__________________
Originally Posted by chandltp View Post
There's no such thing as too far.. just lack of time
Originally Posted by noglider
People in this forum are not typical.
RUSA #7498
ThermionicScott is offline  
Old 11-07-19, 09:46 PM
  #4  
smashndash
Senior Member
Thread Starter
 
Join Date: Feb 2018
Posts: 821

Bikes: 2017 Specialized Allez Sprint Comp

Mentioned: 11 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 484 Post(s)
Liked 111 Times in 83 Posts
Originally Posted by ThermionicScott View Post
Like @AnkleWork, I give you my permission to try it, but don't expect miracles. What'll happen is that the boiling water will melt some of the wax out of the chain (don't use that pot for food anymore), but will also leave warm water behind to rust the inside of your chain before it can fully dry.

If you're going to do wax, the best plan is to commit to wax.
What if I dunk within a few seconds of boiling the chain? It shouldnít really rust in that amount of time right? Iím not expecting a perfect chain, I just want to get as much crud/grit off as I can without spending too much time or effort.

Sorry, by commit to wax do you mean I should get comfortable with throwing out the wax in my slow cooker occasionally to keep it clean? Do people just drop their chains straight from the bike into the slow cooker?
smashndash is offline  
Old 11-07-19, 09:55 PM
  #5  
ThermionicScott 
7-speed cultist
 
ThermionicScott's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2011
Location: CID
Posts: 20,006

Bikes: 1991 Bianchi Eros, 1964 Armstrong, 1988 Diamondback Ascent, 1988 Bianchi Premio, 1987 Bianchi Sport SX, 1980s Raleigh mixte (hers)

Mentioned: 86 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 2742 Post(s)
Liked 657 Times in 458 Posts
Originally Posted by smashndash View Post
What if I dunk within a few seconds of boiling the chain? It shouldn’t really rust in that amount of time right? I’m not expecting a perfect chain, I just want to get as much crud/grit off as I can without spending too much time or effort.
Even worse! You'll get water in the chain without getting the old wax and grit out.

Sorry, by commit to wax do you mean I should get comfortable with throwing out the wax in my slow cooker occasionally to keep it clean? Do people just drop their chains straight from the bike into the slow cooker?
The grit settles to the bottom of the melted wax, so I think chain-waxers just toss the chain into the hot wax straight off the bike, swish it around to let the grit settle out, and fresh wax to migrate into the chain, then take it out again to dry.

I've never gotten around to trying it since a good oil lube lasts for hundreds of miles before squeaking.
__________________
Originally Posted by chandltp View Post
There's no such thing as too far.. just lack of time
Originally Posted by noglider
People in this forum are not typical.
RUSA #7498

Last edited by ThermionicScott; 11-08-19 at 10:05 AM.
ThermionicScott is offline  
Old 11-07-19, 10:05 PM
  #6  
DrIsotope
Non omnino gravis
 
DrIsotope's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2015
Location: SoCal, USA!
Posts: 7,935

Bikes: Nekobasu, Pandicorn, Lakitu

Mentioned: 117 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 4457 Post(s)
Liked 999 Times in 602 Posts
You're overthinking it. When the wax is cold in the pot, you can pop the "puck" out, and shave the icky bottom part off with pretty much anything. A butter knife works. I use a little scrap of aluminum as a scraper. Wax loss is minimal.
__________________
DrIsotope is offline  
Likes For DrIsotope:
Old 11-07-19, 10:06 PM
  #7  
Spoonrobot 
Senior Member
 
Spoonrobot's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2006
Posts: 3,447
Mentioned: 63 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 1167 Post(s)
Liked 112 Times in 79 Posts
You don't need to boil. Put the chain in a plastic jar or jug with some soapy water and shake shake shake. Rinse and repeat, remove and pat dry, then dunk in the new hot wax.

Agitation removes everything. If you have any doubt, clean an old chain with this method and then pull the links apart to see what's inside. I did a few times before settling on my method. I don't think rust is going to be an issue, IME the chain needs to be almost completely dry before the oxidizing can take place. In the span of cleaning to re-waxing rust is not able to form.

FWIW I did not find much cleaning effect from plain water. You don't need a solvent but a surfactant helps.

Last edited by Spoonrobot; 11-07-19 at 10:09 PM.
Spoonrobot is offline  
Old 11-08-19, 08:19 AM
  #8  
DaveSSS
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Sep 2008
Location: Loveland, CO
Posts: 5,752

Bikes: TWO Colnago C-RS w/Chorus 12

Mentioned: 1 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 367 Post(s)
Liked 128 Times in 101 Posts
Using water or soapy water prior to waxing doesn't seem smart to me. It's likely to prevent proper waxing. Maybe if the chain is left in the wax pot long enough and the chain swished around enough, it would work, but with enough swishing, the water probably does no good.

I still prefer a proper cleaning with a solvent like camp stove fuel, with two rinses to do a really good job. I usually give the chain a day to dry off before applying my home brew wax lube.
DaveSSS is offline  
Old 11-08-19, 08:22 AM
  #9  
DrIsotope
Non omnino gravis
 
DrIsotope's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2015
Location: SoCal, USA!
Posts: 7,935

Bikes: Nekobasu, Pandicorn, Lakitu

Mentioned: 117 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 4457 Post(s)
Liked 999 Times in 602 Posts
Cleaning the chain between wax dips defeats a big part of why we chose hot waxing in the first place.

I've never done more than knock the bigger chunks of mud off of the chain before dropping it in the pot.
__________________
DrIsotope is offline  
Likes For DrIsotope:
Old 11-08-19, 09:09 AM
  #10  
WizardOfBoz
Generally bewildered
 
WizardOfBoz's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2015
Location: Eastern PA, USA
Posts: 2,591

Bikes: 2014 Trek Domane 6.9, 1999 LeMond Zurich, 1978 Schwinn Superior

Mentioned: 19 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 950 Post(s)
Liked 186 Times in 133 Posts
I think you might do better to use min spirits. Rinse out, wash, and dry a big juice bottle, like a V-8 bottle. Fill half-full with min spirits. Put the chain in and cap it. Shake. Let it soak an hour. Shake again. Repeat. After several hours or overnight, remove the chain, dry it off with paper towels. If you have an air compressor and you are outside (and are away from any flames and aren't smoking) you could blow out the min spirits. BTW, you could blow out water if you do decide to boil the thing. Finally, hang it up to dry overnight (best outside, or in the garage making sure you have something underneath that will catch the min spirits). Then wax away.

I think min spirits, a relatively innocuous but effective solvent, would be better than removing all waxy and oily lubricants with heat and replacing them with hot water.
WizardOfBoz is offline  
Likes For WizardOfBoz:
Old 11-08-19, 09:50 AM
  #11  
DrIsotope
Non omnino gravis
 
DrIsotope's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2015
Location: SoCal, USA!
Posts: 7,935

Bikes: Nekobasu, Pandicorn, Lakitu

Mentioned: 117 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 4457 Post(s)
Liked 999 Times in 602 Posts
If you are hot waxing a chain there is absolutely no need to clean the chain between applications of hot wax
__________________
DrIsotope is offline  
Likes For DrIsotope:
Old 11-08-19, 10:16 AM
  #12  
IPassGas
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Feb 2015
Location: Pittsburgh, PA
Posts: 91
Mentioned: 0 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 47 Post(s)
Likes: 0
Liked 10 Times in 7 Posts
Which wax product do people like?
IPassGas is offline  
Old 11-08-19, 10:19 AM
  #13  
gregf83 
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Location: Vancouver, BC
Posts: 8,966
Mentioned: 11 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 1036 Post(s)
Liked 155 Times in 92 Posts
I just use regular wax. Once every 6 months or so I pour a few cups of water into the crock pot, heat up the wax and let it cool. Most of the gunk in the wax settles down into the water and the cool wax 'puck' on top of the water is clean.

I would only use the Molten Speedwax if I was doing a TT where the extra 1/2W might be worth something. For everything else plain wax seems adequate and is a little cleaner.
gregf83 is offline  
Old 11-08-19, 11:06 AM
  #14  
AnkleWork
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2013
Location: Llano Estacado
Posts: 3,702

Bikes: old clunker

Mentioned: 13 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 684 Post(s)
Likes: 0
Liked 96 Times in 74 Posts
I for one, will not oppose the OP in expanding a cherished religious fetish. Consider boiling the chain repeatedly with fresh ritually clean water. Then hang the chain from one end and thoroughly exorcise the grime with a high pressure steam cleaner; swap ends and repeat. Cleanse the chain with fire (or a high power heat gun). Add some holy aromatic oil to the wax to complete your ecstasy. (Chants and incantations optional.) Keep a rabbit's foot in your pocket.
AnkleWork is offline  
Old 11-08-19, 11:14 AM
  #15  
ksryder
Senior Member
 
Join Date: May 2014
Posts: 2,282

Bikes: yes

Mentioned: 18 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 1048 Post(s)
Liked 289 Times in 173 Posts
Hey is carbon fiber better than steel? Tubeless or tubular on road bikes? What do you all think about discs?
ksryder is offline  
Old 11-08-19, 12:58 PM
  #16  
smashndash
Senior Member
Thread Starter
 
Join Date: Feb 2018
Posts: 821

Bikes: 2017 Specialized Allez Sprint Comp

Mentioned: 11 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 484 Post(s)
Liked 111 Times in 83 Posts
The reason I asked is that I have previously tried and failed to remove the ďpuckĒ of wax. I didnít want to get into scraping the surface of the cooker. So Iíve resigned myself to just limiting the amount of crud that gets in.

I donít know why people feel the need to get touchy about chain waxing subjects. Itís not as crazy as you think. I think Iíve gotten enough input so we can close this thread.
smashndash is offline  
Old 11-08-19, 03:32 PM
  #17  
redlude97
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Sep 2011
Posts: 4,656
Mentioned: 28 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 1924 Post(s)
Liked 172 Times in 125 Posts
Originally Posted by DrIsotope View Post
You're overthinking it. When the wax is cold in the pot, you can pop the "puck" out, and shave the icky bottom part off with pretty much anything. A butter knife works. I use a little scrap of aluminum as a scraper. Wax loss is minimal.
If you use molten speed wax or your own mix with moly/ptfe, the additives settle at the bottom too so you'll be scraping those away making the wax less effective
redlude97 is offline  
Old 11-08-19, 03:47 PM
  #18  
DrIsotope
Non omnino gravis
 
DrIsotope's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2015
Location: SoCal, USA!
Posts: 7,935

Bikes: Nekobasu, Pandicorn, Lakitu

Mentioned: 117 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 4457 Post(s)
Liked 999 Times in 602 Posts
I just assumed that the people who actually get their chains dirty aren't chasing the 0.5W savings afforded by moly and PTFE.
__________________
DrIsotope is offline  
Old 11-08-19, 04:37 PM
  #19  
DaveSSS
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Sep 2008
Location: Loveland, CO
Posts: 5,752

Bikes: TWO Colnago C-RS w/Chorus 12

Mentioned: 1 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 367 Post(s)
Liked 128 Times in 101 Posts
Originally Posted by DrIsotope View Post
Cleaning the chain between wax dips defeats a big part of why we chose hot waxing in the first place.
I tend to disagree. Chain clearances are large enough that dirt can easily get inside the chain, since most of the wax falls off more quickly than most users will admit. A little swishing in the hot wax is unlikely to remove all the dirt, so your freshly waxed chain is likely to be at least a little dirty.

When I really clean a chain the first solvent bath leaves the chain swimming in dirty solvent. A second bath in clean solvent removes more dirt.
DaveSSS is offline  
Old 11-08-19, 04:48 PM
  #20  
DrIsotope
Non omnino gravis
 
DrIsotope's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2015
Location: SoCal, USA!
Posts: 7,935

Bikes: Nekobasu, Pandicorn, Lakitu

Mentioned: 117 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 4457 Post(s)
Liked 999 Times in 602 Posts
So by this thinking, dirt can magic it's way inside a chain, and the hot wax somehow did not make it into those same voids during the hot waxing process?

The point of wax is that it is a dry lubricant, so it gives no capillary avenue for contaminants to make it into the inside of the chain.

Which is precisely what happens, because +90% of what I clean out of the pots is magnetic-- it's bits of chain.

I rotate two chains on each bike, and they are refreshed once a month. I need only clean out the crockpots (by scraping the wax puck) about 3 times a year.

If there were some small amount of extra mileage to be squeezed out by fully stripping the chains between waxing, it wouldn't be worth the time to me.

My last pair of uber-cheap SRAM PC-1110 chains lasted 7,677 miles.
__________________
DrIsotope is offline  
Old 11-08-19, 05:39 PM
  #21  
redlude97
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Sep 2011
Posts: 4,656
Mentioned: 28 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 1924 Post(s)
Liked 172 Times in 125 Posts
Originally Posted by DrIsotope View Post
So by this thinking, dirt can magic it's way inside a chain, and the hot wax somehow did not make it into those same voids during the hot waxing process?

The point of wax is that it is a dry lubricant, so it gives no capillary avenue for contaminants to make it into the inside of the chain.

Which is precisely what happens, because +90% of what I clean out of the pots is magnetic-- it's bits of chain.

I rotate two chains on each bike, and they are refreshed once a month. I need only clean out the crockpots (by scraping the wax puck) about 3 times a year.

If there were some small amount of extra mileage to be squeezed out by fully stripping the chains between waxing, it wouldn't be worth the time to me.

My last pair of uber-cheap SRAM PC-1110 chains lasted 7,677 miles.
I think the point is that without agitatation and movement of each link hot wax will make its way into the rollers to refresh the lubricant, but not flush out any particulates be it dirt or metal from the chain
It also provides essentially no hydrophobic barrier to dirty water/road spray from wicking into the chain when its wet out.
I clean my chains in OMS before they get dropped into the hot wax, and I can keep reusing both the OMS and hot wax essentially indefinitely and just top up and pour off the clear OMS leaving the dirt and fairly large particles in the bottom of the container, which would make their way into my wax. YMMV
redlude97 is offline  
Old 11-08-19, 05:44 PM
  #22  
AnkleWork
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2013
Location: Llano Estacado
Posts: 3,702

Bikes: old clunker

Mentioned: 13 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 684 Post(s)
Likes: 0
Liked 96 Times in 74 Posts
Originally Posted by DrIsotope View Post
I just assumed that the people who actually get their chains dirty aren't chasing the 0.5W savings afforded by moly and PTFE.
Thank you for the leading zero.
AnkleWork is offline  
Likes For AnkleWork:
Old 11-08-19, 06:04 PM
  #23  
ThermionicScott 
7-speed cultist
 
ThermionicScott's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2011
Location: CID
Posts: 20,006

Bikes: 1991 Bianchi Eros, 1964 Armstrong, 1988 Diamondback Ascent, 1988 Bianchi Premio, 1987 Bianchi Sport SX, 1980s Raleigh mixte (hers)

Mentioned: 86 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 2742 Post(s)
Liked 657 Times in 458 Posts
Originally Posted by smashndash View Post
I donít know why people feel the need to get touchy about chain waxing subjects. Itís not as crazy as you think.
Welcome to the Internet, where the most heated debates are generally about the most inconsequential things.
__________________
Originally Posted by chandltp View Post
There's no such thing as too far.. just lack of time
Originally Posted by noglider
People in this forum are not typical.
RUSA #7498
ThermionicScott is offline  
Old 11-08-19, 06:05 PM
  #24  
canklecat
Me duelen las nalgas
 
canklecat's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2015
Location: Texas
Posts: 10,954

Bikes: Centurion Ironman, Trek 5900, Univega Via Carisma, Globe Carmel

Mentioned: 180 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 3477 Post(s)
Liked 941 Times in 628 Posts
If you're wanting to degrease a new chain in the original lube, and not use a petroleum solvent or gasoline (bad idea but some folks do it), there are caustic degreasers for use in hot water.

I use LA's Totally Awesome Grill & Oven cleaner from Dollartree. Costs a whole dollar for a big pump spray bottle. No petroleum, flammable or combustible liquids. Smells like ammonia to me, but the ingredients show none. It's just strong surfactants, same stuff used in other more costly water based degreasers. It's not quite as effective as other solvents but good enough and easier to use.

Dunk the water-cleaned and thoroughly dry chain ASAP into the hot wax before rust develops. Depending on climate it'll show a thin layer of rust almost immediately after degreasing in water.

I soak chains in hot wax in a crock pot for several hours or overnight, to be sure all water has evaporated and the wax has time to wick into the bearing spaces.

I'm also trying paraffin based liquid lubes like Boeshield T9 and White Lightning Easy Lube to displace water from the freshly cleaned chain, let the carriers evaporate (Easy Lube smells like naptha, not sure about Boeshield) then dunking in the crock pot of hot wax. Not sure it's necessary, just an experiment.

I'd like to recommend paraffin based liquid lubes as substitutes but I haven't found one that's much cleaner than regular liquid chain lubes. They all attract grime the same. And the Easy Lube clogged up the freewheel and cassette pretty badly when applied as directed -- I had to floss them clean because it was making the drivetrain and shifting draggy. Only hot wax seems resistant to attracting a grimy mess or clogging up the drivetrain. The excess just flakes off on the first ride.
canklecat is offline  
Old 11-08-19, 06:09 PM
  #25  
masi61
Senior Member
 
masi61's Avatar
 
Join Date: Oct 2005
Location: SW Ohio
Posts: 2,513

Bikes: Puch Marco Polo, Saint Tropez, Masi Gran Criterium

Mentioned: 21 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 574 Post(s)
Liked 73 Times in 55 Posts
Originally Posted by redlude97 View Post
I think the point is that without agitatation and movement of each link hot wax will make its way into the rollers to refresh the lubricant, but not flush out any particulates be it dirt or metal from the chain
It also provides essentially no hydrophobic barrier to dirty water/road spray from wicking into the chain when its wet out.
I clean my chains in OMS before they get dropped into the hot wax, and I can keep reusing both the OMS and hot wax essentially indefinitely and just top up and pour off the clear OMS leaving the dirt and fairly large particles in the bottom of the container, which would make their way into my wax. YMMV
My understanding of switching to wax is that the initial cleaning is the important one. It is important to take all the lube off your new chain (molten speed wax recommends 2 odorless mineral spirits sloshes followed by 2 cycles in denatured alcohol) then really sloshing the clean chain in the crock pot using a carefully bent coat hanger "sloshy" tool to aggressively work some wax into the internals of the chain. Once this first waxing is done, you prepare a second new chain and have it ready to go at all times. I change out the chain sooner than the 300 or 400 miles that they say is about the right interval. I actually end up changing the chain in more like 150 to 200 miles. This way the chain stays quieter and the wax hasn't really had as much chance to flake off.

I am curious about a few of the YouTube videos on chain waxing where they try to make sure that the wax stays sticky and not so hard. I'm curious about the use of "paraffin oil" or lamp oil with the wax in order to make a different consistency that stays put. I did purchase some lamp oil and was going to try a few cycles of chain waxing with this combination to test the results for longevity, quietness and precision.

Molten speed wax does have the PTFE and molybdenum powder in it which gives the wax a grey color. This makes it difficult to identify "dirt" that settles into the bottom of the crock pot. I retired some of my molten speedwax after it had done about 12 or 15 chains. I poured the well used remaining wax into a rectangular silicon soap mold and made a rectangular "brick" which I saved. My intention was to scrape the bottom lightly with a woodworking scraper just to get rid of any potential metallic flakes that might be there.
masi61 is offline  

Thread Tools
Search this Thread

Contact Us - Archive - Advertising - Cookie Policy - Privacy Statement - Terms of Service - Do Not Sell My Personal Information

Copyright © 2018 MH Sub I, LLC dba Internet Brands. All rights reserved. Use of this site indicates your consent to the Terms of Use.