Go Back  Bike Forums > Bike Forums > General Cycling Discussion
Reload this Page >

Average annual cost of cycling?

Notices
General Cycling Discussion Have a cycling related question or comment that doesn't fit in one of the other specialty forums? Drop on in and post in here! When possible, please select the forum above that most fits your post!

Average annual cost of cycling?

Old 04-22-17, 08:33 PM
  #1  
johngwheeler
Senior Member
Thread Starter
 
Join Date: Mar 2017
Location: Sydney, Australia
Posts: 837
Mentioned: 2 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 470 Post(s)
Liked 3 Times in 3 Posts
Average annual cost of cycling?

Sometimes I like to work out how much my hobbies are costing me - although I usually regret it when the numbers are in!

It got me thinking about my new addiction to cycling. My initial outlay (2 bikes) has been quite large, but I'm assuming I'm going to get at least 10 years use out them, or recoup a reasonable fraction of their cost if sold. I've also had to invest in accessories (clothing, pedals, lights, panniers, computer, shoes, helmet, pumps, spares etc.) which was another largish amount of "one-off" purchases.

Now I'm at a "steady-state" of equipment, what is a reasonable budget for annual maintenance, repairs and replacment of wear & tear items? I ride about 100-200km per week combined on both bikes.

Obviously things like tires, tubes, brake pads, cables and clothing will wear out, but are other parts of the bike require replacing over time (e.g. Gears, chain, deraillers, cranks)?

For those of you who are not completely content with your current bike line-up, how much do you spend on average a year on buying and selling new bikes?
johngwheeler is offline  
Old 04-22-17, 08:45 PM
  #2  
blue192
Senior Member
 
blue192's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2008
Location: Ottawa
Posts: 473

Bikes: Norco Scene 1, Khs Westwood, Jamis Allegro 3x

Mentioned: 1 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 126 Post(s)
Liked 52 Times in 33 Posts
Hmm I actually worked this out on my current have fun bike...

1,000$ for the bike, cargo rack, fenders, kickstand, bell etc.
300$ for a really good light setup.
100$~150$ a year in bike shop maintenance.
300$ ish a year I spend on misc bike stuff.

Now what I no longer pay for....

$$$ for a car, oil change, maint etc.
$$$ for insurance.
10$ each time I go downtown to pay for parking whilst I drink tea (I enjoy the same place for tea about 3 times a week).
1.40$ for one litre of gas!

At least with me my bike paid for itself after only one year of use and am saving a small fortune now that I no longer drive just a bus and a bike. xD
blue192 is offline  
Old 04-22-17, 10:07 PM
  #3  
NILS14
Senior Member
 
NILS14's Avatar
 
Join Date: Mar 2015
Location: Quebec, Canada
Posts: 84

Bikes: Specialized Secteur Sport 2015, Vitus Zenium VRS 2014

Mentioned: 0 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 17 Post(s)
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Prices in CAD - I have two bikes

Bar tape: $20-$30 - Either out of necessity or just because I want to change.
Chain cleaner / Degreaser: $30
Speedplay cleat lubricant $15
Pedal grease: negligible
Wheel maintenance at lbs - $50
Bike chain: $50
Cables: didn't change any this year but will have to next year: $100-$150
Cassette and chainring: didn't have to change that yet but will be costly when I do @ $90-$100 a cassette. Chainrings: with the price of 105 cranksets...that probably means a new crankset altogether.
Tires: $100 - didn't get flats but got tires ruined because of deep cuts caused by rocks and squirrel claws (yes, that's right)
Cleats: $65
Water bottles: $40 - I can't keep them like new, so I get new ones at the end of the season.
NEw bottle cages is also a cheap way to change the look of the bike a bit, although I didn't change them this year.

Then if you ride enough, you'll have to throw away bibs and get new ones as the padding gets worn. Saddle body gets soft. If you crash you may have to replace derailleur hangers or other parts. Shoes get worn. That'S not a yearly expense however.

If you want your bike in top working condition, you need to learn to do maintenance yourself: tools and a stand cost a lot but will give you a better overall experience: no real down time and the bike is looked after the way you want it to - I personally don't touch the wheels however, I bring those in when needed.

Once you got the tools (if you do maintenance) and your fit is dialed in (if you do long distances): right saddle, right stem and handlebars and right seatpost (offset mainly) then the cost is reasonable considering the health benefits, the enjoyment and especially if you commute.

As far as bikes go, I got my aggressive geometry and my relaxed geometry frames so no need to change for a while. When I need to replace either of those two, my next bike will be a custom steel frame by Marinoni - I'd go meet them right where they live to get the full experience. I know enough now to know that buying a complete bike is a waste of money for me: I likely wouldn't like the wheels and tires, saddle, seatpost, handlebars, perhaps the cassette, perhaps the chainrings and in my price range, manufacturers skimp on brakes too so that would need to change as well most likely.
NILS14 is offline  
Old 04-22-17, 10:10 PM
  #4  
Maelochs
Senior Member
 
Maelochs's Avatar
 
Join Date: Oct 2015
Posts: 12,695

Bikes: 2015 Workswell 066, 2014 Dawes Sheila, 1983 Cannondale 500, 1984 Raleigh Olympian, 2007 Cannondale Rize 4, 2017 Fuji Sportif 1 LE

Mentioned: 142 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 6083 Post(s)
Liked 976 Times in 549 Posts
I find with hobbies, frugality is an oddly applied concept.

I like to get new stuff ... even new used stuff. So, I often randomly shop around for things related to my hobbies. Not necessarily stuff I need, but stuff it might be fun to buy and hopefully, use.

I got a couple really cheap camera slings---great quality, new manufacturer just entering the market. I bought a lens bag specifically designed to help swapping lenses in the field. I bought a sleeve to hold my filters. And with photography there are always new lenses, different lenses, better lenses ... and every now and then, upgraded bodies.

Bikes, same way. A few little gadgets, some useful tools ... looking for deals on consumables (might as well stock up when the prices are right.) And of course, if a top-end saddle or something goes on sale .... I just bought a repair stand, despite the fact that I Could have just continued to hang bikes from the ceiling.

I upgraded from square-taper to Hollowtech because I found a crankset and BB for $35. Totally unnecessary----but a significant upgrade at an amazing price. How do I calculate that cost?

And of course I always hope for that garage find ... that yard-sale special, the bike (not necessarily even amazing) which someone bought and never rode and now wants to get rid of for cheap ... or the bike with a good frame which someone as abused and neglected who now wants to unload it, not realizing that under the dirt and bent rims is a fine bike waiting to be cleaned and reassembled.

If I was to do everything for the least possible cash investment --- I used to pick up bikes off the side of the road, condition almost unimportant---strip whatever worked and toss the rest. I have picked through bike shop dumpsters. When you have very little income and need transport to get more, ways can be found.

Now that it is more of a hobby (though it does replace almost every local trip by car) I spend money on it for fun. Some folks eat at restaurants or see movies.

I could probably cut my expenses to a chain and a set of tires per year, a cassette every two or three, a BB and crankset every five ... depending on how much rain-riding I did. But what would be the fun of that?
Maelochs is offline  
Old 04-22-17, 10:12 PM
  #5  
a1penguin
Senior Member
 
a1penguin's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: Silicon Valley, CA
Posts: 3,190
Mentioned: 2 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 135 Post(s)
Liked 18 Times in 11 Posts
At the rate of 5k miles per year, you can expect $250 a year for tune up and parts, I'd say. Chain every 5k miles and casette every 10k. I get 3-5k miles out of a tire. Cycling clothes last a long time if you take care of them; I wash mine by hand. Shorts and gloves will wear faster because of the contact. I don't know how often bottom brackets require replacing. Or wheels. I am lazy and earn good enough salary I let the bike shop do maintenance on the bike.

Keeping the drive train clean and chain oiled will maximize the life, especially if you ride in the rain and pick up dirt. I am a fair weather rider, so I don't accumulate much dirt; mostly find dust.

If you have purchased decent quality bikes, the parts should wear well.

I don't think you can put a dollar value on the benefit you derive from the level of exercise you are getting. Hobbies like hiking, running, biking etc have additional benefits that hobbies such as watch collecting don't have. If you are riding 100-200km per week, you are getting the value out of your bikes!
a1penguin is offline  
Old 04-22-17, 10:45 PM
  #6  
GeneO 
Senior Member
 
GeneO's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2010
Location: midwest
Posts: 2,498

Bikes: 2018 Roubaix Expert Di2, 2016 Diverge Expert X1

Mentioned: 13 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 469 Post(s)
Liked 129 Times in 91 Posts
Amortizing over their lifetime and considering I do most of my own wrenching so tool costs, I figure about $400-$500/yr sans bike. This incudes biking clothes, tools, replacement components and tires, lube and other maintenance (e.g. bleeding kit). work stands, but not nutrition or bike. Based on my last year purchases, but this is probably an overestimate as I bought a new bike and had to buy new tools... I also commute by bike frequently. I do about t 2.5-3k. mi/yr total. so I probably saved $1k in car costs.

.

Last edited by GeneO; 04-22-17 at 10:50 PM.
GeneO is offline  
Old 04-23-17, 04:04 AM
  #7  
MarioT
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jun 2014
Posts: 75

Bikes: 1998 Trek 8000SL, 2013 Madone 3.1, 2016 Trek Fuel EX8 27.5

Mentioned: 1 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 12 Post(s)
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
If you aren't someone who wants change for change's sake, and cycle near your house, it's a relatively inexpensive hobby after all initial purchases are made.
I have a road bike and after work I ride from my front door, but on the weekends I put the bike on the car rack sometimes a drive to more scenic places to ride.
Same with my mountain bike... I need to drive to mountains to ride. So cycling for me involves gas expenses and passes at the mountain resorts.
MarioT is offline  
Old 04-23-17, 05:55 AM
  #8  
supton
Cries on hills
 
supton's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2007
Location: Central NH
Posts: 1,088

Bikes: 2007 Trek Pilot 1.2, 1969 Raleigh Sprite 5

Mentioned: 1 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 83 Post(s)
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
I can be OCD about things, certainly am about my car costs (but hey, it's a huge cost and ought to be kept in check); but I tend to just ride my bike without obsessing over it. If I did obsess, it'd probably stop being fun. Since biking is what I do to keep stress in check I kinda/sorta need to not making biking into a chore.

Of course, I've probably spent relatively little over the years, relative to the miles I've racked up. I used Obama's stimulus money to buy my road bike, and DIY everything it's needed thus far. I usually use stuff until it's worn out, and don't worry about appearances. Helps to have an LL Bean outlet nearby; I've gotten a few good things there. That's helped keep costs in check too.

I figure it's been less than if I had a gym membership. And since I have a desk job I have to spend money somehow to get needed exercise.
supton is offline  
Old 04-23-17, 06:11 AM
  #9  
southpier
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Aug 2011
Posts: 486
Mentioned: 1 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 159 Post(s)
Liked 30 Times in 25 Posts
as mentioned, the health benefits cannot be considered "bought". with hobbies I like to divide dollars by hours of pleasure.

a $2,000 bike divided by 10,000 hours of fun = not much per hour.

a $12 movie with another $10 in treats = lardass.
southpier is offline  
Old 04-23-17, 06:28 AM
  #10  
Paul Barnard
For The Fun of It
 
Join Date: May 2007
Location: Louisissippi Coast
Posts: 4,750

Bikes: Lynskey Backroad, Litespeed T6, Lynskey MT29, Burley Duet

Mentioned: 11 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 1477 Post(s)
Liked 757 Times in 384 Posts
Cheaper than about 5 rounds of golf and cheaper than a single offshore fishing trip in the motorboat.
Paul Barnard is offline  
Old 04-23-17, 07:11 AM
  #11  
rydabent
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Apr 2010
Location: Lincoln Ne
Posts: 8,964

Bikes: RANS Stratus TerraTrike Tour II

Mentioned: 26 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 2345 Post(s)
Liked 638 Times in 386 Posts
The cost is reduced a great deal if buy a few tools and and do your own maintence.
rydabent is offline  
Old 04-23-17, 01:47 PM
  #12  
John_V 
Senior Member
 
John_V's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2011
Location: Tampa, Florida
Posts: 5,586

Bikes: 2017 Colnago C-RS, 2012 Colnago Ace, 2010 Giant Cypress hybrid

Mentioned: 3 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 407 Post(s)
Liked 120 Times in 84 Posts
Your mileage and the type of riding you do is going to have the biggest determination of how much money you spend on your bike. You can decrease the cost for quite a bit of that by learning simple maintenance that keeps you from bringing the bike to a shop.
__________________
HCFR Cycling Team
Ride Safe ... Ride Hard ... Ride Daily

2017 Colnago C-RS
2012 Colnago Ace
2010 Giant Cypress
John_V is offline  
Old 04-23-17, 02:14 PM
  #13  
MarioT
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jun 2014
Posts: 75

Bikes: 1998 Trek 8000SL, 2013 Madone 3.1, 2016 Trek Fuel EX8 27.5

Mentioned: 1 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 12 Post(s)
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Originally Posted by southpier View Post
as mentioned, the health benefits cannot be considered "bought". with hobbies I like to divide dollars by hours of pleasure.

a $2,000 bike divided by 10,000 hours of fun = not much per hour.

a $12 movie with another $10 in treats = lardass.
Bike... 20 cents per hour
Movies... $11/hour, for a 2 hour movie

So if I stop going to movies, I now have $110,000 ($11 x 10,000) for bike purchases!!!
MarioT is offline  
Old 04-23-17, 02:28 PM
  #14  
Maelochs
Senior Member
 
Maelochs's Avatar
 
Join Date: Oct 2015
Posts: 12,695

Bikes: 2015 Workswell 066, 2014 Dawes Sheila, 1983 Cannondale 500, 1984 Raleigh Olympian, 2007 Cannondale Rize 4, 2017 Fuji Sportif 1 LE

Mentioned: 142 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 6083 Post(s)
Liked 976 Times in 549 Posts
Originally Posted by MarioT View Post
So if I stop going to movies, I now have $110,000 ($11 x 10,000) for bike purchases!!!
I need ten times that amount so I can retire and have time to ride all those new bikes.

Accepting donations, PM me.
Maelochs is offline  
Old 04-23-17, 02:48 PM
  #15  
wphamilton
Senior Member
 
wphamilton's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2011
Location: Alpharetta, GA
Posts: 15,280

Bikes: Nashbar Road

Mentioned: 71 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 2932 Post(s)
Liked 331 Times in 221 Posts
$50-$150 per year on 5K to 6K miles riding per year.
wphamilton is offline  
Old 04-23-17, 03:05 PM
  #16  
Kelly I
Member
 
Kelly I's Avatar
 
Join Date: Nov 2011
Posts: 41
Mentioned: 0 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 17 Post(s)
Likes: 0
Liked 9 Times in 5 Posts
I was told that a bike is considered 'paid for' once you ride a mile for every dollar spent on the purchase. 1,500 miles for a $1,500. bike. I kept that formula tucked away in my mind for years. The someone asked about the resale value. If I could sell the same bike for $1,000. Then did I really need to ride only 500 miles to get my money's worth and buy a new bike?

I was fine with the original formula. The second piece, that is messy.

PS - I bought my last bike eight years ago. I take it to the shop for maintenance. I spend $2-300. a year at the shop. This is a recumbent bike, I just bought a replacement seat fabric. The old one was tired and not taunt. I whined and moaned before I forked over the $272. for the new fabric. I guess eight years is a good run, even if I didn't like the price.
Kelly I is offline  
Old 04-23-17, 03:14 PM
  #17  
Marcus_Ti 
FLIR Kitten to 0.05C
 
Marcus_Ti's Avatar
 
Join Date: Sep 2014
Location: Lincoln, Nebraska
Posts: 5,327

Bikes: Roadie: Seven Axiom Race Ti w/Chorus 11s. CX/Adventure: Carver Gravel Grinder w/ Di2

Mentioned: 30 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 2345 Post(s)
Liked 397 Times in 249 Posts
Originally Posted by blue192 View Post
Hmm I actually worked this out on my current have fun bike...

1,000$ for the bike, cargo rack, fenders, kickstand, bell etc.
300$ for a really good light setup.
100$~150$ a year in bike shop maintenance.
300$ ish a year I spend on misc bike stuff.

Now what I no longer pay for....

$$$ for a car, oil change, maint etc.
$$$ for insurance.
10$ each time I go downtown to pay for parking whilst I drink tea (I enjoy the same place for tea about 3 times a week).
1.40$ for one litre of gas!

At least with me my bike paid for itself after only one year of use and am saving a small fortune now that I no longer drive just a bus and a bike. xD
How about simply paying for parking. By commuting by bike every day to work...I used to save $2,350 per year (AKA $9/day) in parking. The city this calendar year upped its parking rates....now I save $2,925USD per year ($11.25/day).


Said another way, by riding and not parking....my titanium Di2 gravel grinder purchase will pay for itself in less than 1.5 years simply in parking garage fees. Said another-another way, my commuting to work for the past 1.5 years has won me a "free" di2 titanium gravel grinder.

Last edited by Marcus_Ti; 04-23-17 at 03:23 PM.
Marcus_Ti is offline  
Old 04-23-17, 03:37 PM
  #18  
Kindaslow
Senior Member
 
Kindaslow's Avatar
 
Join Date: Dec 2014
Location: Seattlish
Posts: 2,751

Bikes: SWorks Stumpy, Haibike Xduro RX, Crave SS

Mentioned: 13 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 513 Post(s)
Likes: 0
Liked 7 Times in 5 Posts
If I answer this honestly my wife could some day see it. That would not be good for me!

My bikes are a hobby, transportation, and my primary exercise. The hobby part is what makes them expensive for me. So, I am taking the fifth, but drinking a fifth if my wife finds the receipts...
Kindaslow is offline  
Old 04-23-17, 03:48 PM
  #19  
Gresp15C
Senior Member
 
Gresp15C's Avatar
 
Join Date: Sep 2014
Posts: 3,705
Mentioned: 20 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 1000 Post(s)
Liked 547 Times in 355 Posts
In terms of actual necessities for about 2k miles per year, I'd guess that I spend about 50 to 100 bucks a year.

Splurges cost more.
Gresp15C is offline  
Old 04-24-17, 04:06 AM
  #20  
jgwilliams
Senior Member
 
jgwilliams's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2004
Location: Surrey, UK
Posts: 627

Bikes: Mekk Poggion with SRAM Force, custom built 653 and 531 bikes with frames by Barry Witcomb, Giant XTC 4 mountain bike and a Brompton folding bike.

Mentioned: 6 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 205 Post(s)
Liked 64 Times in 46 Posts
On the whole it doesn't have to be a particularly costly hobby. I was contemplating tyres the other day though and thinking that I'm glad car tyres are much cheaper in terms of price per kg than bike tyres or they would be ruinously expensive.
jgwilliams is offline  
Old 04-24-17, 05:04 AM
  #21  
Kapusta
Cyclochondriac
 
Join Date: Feb 2017
Posts: 4,438
Mentioned: 26 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 1912 Post(s)
Liked 1,254 Times in 727 Posts
i have not added it all up in a while, but it depends on the bike.

Even after the initial costs, mountain bikes are a lot more expensive and time consuming to maintain than road bikes, in my experience.
Kapusta is offline  
Old 04-24-17, 07:19 AM
  #22  
Phil_gretz
Journeyman Bike Commuter
 
Phil_gretz's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2009
Location: Alexandria, VA
Posts: 6,556

Bikes: '71 Jeunet 640, '79 Peugeot PXN10LE, '88 Fuji Saratoga, '13 Motobecane Fantom29 HT, '16 Motobecane Turino Pro Disc, '16 Motobecane Gran Premio Elite, '18 Velobuild VB-R-022

Mentioned: 20 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 1272 Post(s)
Liked 1,133 Times in 609 Posts
Originally Posted by supton View Post
... I used Obama's stimulus money to buy my road bike...
Please elaborate on the source of these dollars. Federal grant? College loan forgiveness?
Phil_gretz is offline  
Old 04-24-17, 07:59 AM
  #23  
Leebo
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Aug 2009
Location: North of Boston
Posts: 5,721

Bikes: Kona Dawg, Surly 1x1, Karate Monkey, Rockhopper, Crosscheck , Burley Runabout,

Mentioned: 10 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 854 Post(s)
Liked 109 Times in 64 Posts
Cost of cycling? About average. It is my hobby, sport and transportation, plus my source of exercise. It's cheaper than therapy. What is gas cost for 2,000 or so commuting miles per year? Lack of gym fees? Awesome legs my better half likes? Price of 120 /78 for PB, 30 lbs less weight around my waist? Great overall health and a good( mostly) lifestyle. Cost? Priceless. You can't buy good health.
Leebo is offline  
Old 04-24-17, 08:07 AM
  #24  
55murray
Senior Member
 
55murray's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2017
Location: Lafayette, Indiana
Posts: 429

Bikes: 1955 20" Murray modified cruiser, 2007 Trek 7.3 FX, 1980 Miyata 610, several other vintage coaster brake machines

Mentioned: 1 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 196 Post(s)
Liked 70 Times in 37 Posts
Originally Posted by Gresp15C View Post
In terms of actual necessities for about 2k miles per year, I'd guess that I spend about 50 to 100 bucks a year.

Splurges cost more.
This is exactly where I am at, most expenses involve chains, tubes, tires, cassettes. Occasionally pedals and seats. I ride a bit over 2K per year.
55murray is offline  
Old 04-24-17, 08:39 AM
  #25  
jefnvk
Senior Member
 
jefnvk's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2015
Location: Metro Detroit/AA
Posts: 8,212

Bikes: 2016 Novara Mazama

Mentioned: 63 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 3634 Post(s)
Liked 74 Times in 44 Posts
I can replace tires, tubes, cassette, tape and chain under $100. Heck, say $100 for mid-level stuff. So, assuming I wear all those out every year, $100 a year or less.

Brake pads vary wildly on how fast they wear based on style and type of riding, so toss in another $20-30 if you want nice ones (I do). I'll just assume an average of one set a year, some may go many seasons, some may need replaced a couple times a year.

How you amortize the cost of your bike over the years is up to you.

My clothing is really no more expensive than my regular clothes, and I often ride in regular clothes, so to me those costs are negligible.

Past that, my biggest cycling related expenses are a) the beer at the breweries I cycle regularly to, and b) entry fees for the mass rides that the fiancee loves. Both probably range in the many hundreds of dollars a year, but both are personal to me expenses which you may vary wildly on!
jefnvk is offline  

Thread Tools
Search this Thread

Contact Us - Archive - Advertising - Cookie Policy - Privacy Statement - Terms of Service - Do Not Sell My Personal Information -

Copyright 2021 MH Sub I, LLC dba Internet Brands. All rights reserved. Use of this site indicates your consent to the Terms of Use.