Notices
Tandem Cycling A bicycle built for two. Want to find out more about this wonderful world of tandems? Check out this forum to talk with other tandem enthusiasts. Captains and stokers welcome!

Riding with newbie

Old 07-04-19, 11:04 AM
  #1  
gnappi
Senior Member
Thread Starter
 
gnappi's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2010
Location: So. Flo. U.S.A
Posts: 62

Bikes: All are vintage... Schwinn 564, Cannondale Criterium 600, Cannondale F300 MB

Mentioned: 0 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 21 Post(s)
Liked 16 Times in 12 Posts
Riding with newbie

My GF who was born in Sicily when bikes were FAR scarcer then donkeys has never ridden a bike. She wants to learn (we're in mid 60's) I'm wondering if a tandem bike will give her a sense of balance before getting on a bike alone, or would it be more likely that she bring a tandem bike crashing down despite my balancing it for her?

Also would the foot brake be a problem should she panic and not let me stop the bike? Considering that can anyone recommend a reasonably priced tandem with hand brakes? Maybe even a few speeds?

TIA
gnappi is offline  
Old 07-04-19, 11:42 AM
  #2  
jethro00
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jun 2016
Posts: 84
Mentioned: 1 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 29 Post(s)
Likes: 0
Liked 1 Time in 1 Post
Are there any parks nearby or anywhere you visit that rent tandem bikes? If so, get helmets and rent a tandem for a few hours and give it a try.
jethro00 is offline  
Old 07-04-19, 02:25 PM
  #3  
quemazon
Member
 
Join Date: Sep 2004
Posts: 37
Mentioned: 0 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 9 Post(s)
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Yeah, I concur about trying a rental tandem--preferably with an upright sitting position and mountain-style handle bars (which is how they are usually set up). One caveat is that riding where you have to start and stop a lot is tricky, especially around people. If you have an uncrowded bike path, that would be best. Communicating when you will start and stop pedaling is also important.
quemazon is offline  
Old 07-04-19, 05:44 PM
  #4  
Leisesturm
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jul 2005
Posts: 4,094
Mentioned: 20 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 1362 Post(s)
Liked 63 Times in 52 Posts
Originally Posted by gnappi View Post
My GF who was born in Sicily when bikes were FAR scarcer then donkeys has never ridden a bike. She wants to learn (we're in mid 60's) I'm wondering if a tandem bike will give her a sense of balance before getting on a bike alone, or would it be more likely that she bring a tandem bike crashing down despite my balancing it for her?

Also would the foot brake be a problem should she panic and not let me stop the bike? Considering that can anyone recommend a reasonably priced tandem with hand brakes? Maybe even a few speeds?

TIA
My ex-GF (now wife) was born blind and never will learn how to balance a bicycle. She is strong though and with me doing the balancing we are formidable in the tandem club. Riding a tandem as a Stoker will NOT give a person a sense of the balance needed to balance a single. The opposite actually, which is why most experienced Captains find it VERY hard to be a Stoker, even for a short amount of time. If your GF wants to learn to ride a single bike (not recommended) then she should just get one and see how that goes. And it isn't likely that she could bring you both down just because she cannot presently balance. That's the idea of a tandem, the Captain balances for both riders. I can absolutely recommend the Kent Dual-Drive tandems sold through Walmart stores. 24 speeds and modern V-brakes (hand brakes). Others may quibble but you won't do better. Yah, you could get a 2,000 year old high end tandem that was amazing in its time but none of the components would be serviceable with the Allen Wrenches and Phillips Head driver bits that are the Gold Standard for bicycle assembly and adjustment in the 21st Century. We eventually moved on from the Kent but remember it fondly. You never forget your first ...
Leisesturm is offline  
Likes For Leisesturm:
Old 07-04-19, 06:23 PM
  #5  
Carbonfiberboy 
just another gosling
 
Carbonfiberboy's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2007
Location: Everett, WA
Posts: 15,324

Bikes: CoMo Speedster 2003, Trek 5200, CAAD 9, Fred 2004

Mentioned: 95 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 1972 Post(s)
Liked 106 Times in 85 Posts
To me, bike riding always meant freedom. When women first mounted bikes, the whole world changed. I say she could learn to ride a single, no problem. Freedom is a big deal. Google "how to learn to ride a bike as an adult." The frame has to be small enough or a design which allows the saddle to be lowered enough that the rider can propel herself with her feet, the pedals being removed, just like a 2 year-old's balance bike.
__________________
Results matter
Carbonfiberboy is offline  
Old 07-04-19, 07:00 PM
  #6  
surak
Senior Member
 
surak's Avatar
 
Join Date: Nov 2017
Location: Seattle
Posts: 746

Bikes: Specialized Roubaix, Giant Contend SL Disc 2, Priority Continuum Onyx, Santana Vision, Kent Dual-Drive Tandem, Priority Classic

Mentioned: 12 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 284 Post(s)
Liked 39 Times in 23 Posts
Starting her off on a tandem may have the opposite effect. My stoker hasn't touched her bike since we bought our first of two tandems. We rented a hybrid tandem while on vacation and liked it enough to buy the entry-level Kent Dual-Drive. The Kent is definitely good enough for beginners.
surak is offline  
Old 07-07-19, 09:43 AM
  #7  
bazil4696
Bike Doctor
 
bazil4696's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2015
Location: Southern Ontario, Niagara region
Posts: 82

Bikes: 1971 & '73 Raleigh Suberbes, 1985 Gazelle Sport Solide, 1985 Rossi professional, and an Eaton's Glider

Mentioned: 4 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 40 Post(s)
Likes: 0
Liked 11 Times in 4 Posts
My wife never learned as a child how to ride a bike, and since has had both knees replaced. I built her a nice bike and tried teaching her. Then I got adult training wheels but still she couldn't manage very well. We bought a reasonably priced used tandem and ride together every chance we get. I changed the seatpost and seat and went through a few variations of handlebars, bull bars, until she was comfortable. I added toeclips to keep her feet safely in place after a close call with the chain and she has learned to get in and out of those easily. Trust is the most important asset you can build, so read up and watch YouTube on tandem tips, how to get on, start off, stop, and communicate. Buy a modern tandem with indexed shifting and lots of gears cause you'll use every one of them when gaining experience.
bazil4696 is offline  
Likes For bazil4696:
Old 07-08-19, 11:02 AM
  #8  
bakerjw
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Sep 2008
Location: NE Tennessee
Posts: 890

Bikes: Giant TCR/Surly Karate Monkey/Foundry FireTower/Curtlo Tandem

Mentioned: 4 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 161 Post(s)
Liked 75 Times in 54 Posts
Originally Posted by Leisesturm View Post
My ex-GF (now wife) was born blind and never will learn how to balance a bicycle.
Not to derail a thread.
My wife has been visually impaired her entire life too. She can see well enough to have been able to ride her bike to and from where she used to work though. That said, her balance is not all that great but some of that comes from poor upper body strength.

To the OP. As some have mentioned, a lot of it is a trust issue where tandems are concerned. My wife used to freak out if we broke 30 miles an hour on a descent until she got used to it and trusted my judgement. Myself, I don't particularly like getting over 40.
Then we took out mountain tandem out on the gravel. It was the same thing all over again but this time, there was noise of gravel crunching and getting spit out as we descended. I also have to move the bike around a lot more to avoid obstructions.
Early on, when we would take our road tandem out, I would lean us into curves. Once or twice when the bike was leaning, she fought me and tried to keep the bike upright. I gave her a little reprimand because I had to get heavy on the brakes to keep from pushing off the side of the road.

Again, as some have mentioned. Try a rental or see if anyone in the area has one to try. There is a joke in the world of tandems. "Whichever way your relationship is heading, a tandem will get you there faster." We say it jokingly but it is true. Luckily, my wife loves our tandem rides. Usually more than I do, but then again, the stoker is the one who puts out all of the power.
bakerjw is offline  
Old 07-08-19, 11:14 AM
  #9  
qspencer
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Dec 2013
Location: Lubbock, Texas
Posts: 117

Bikes: VeloBuild VB-R-027 (road), Miracle Bikes MC-286 (cyclocross), 1986 Raleigh Olympian, X-Peria 5200 (tandem)

Mentioned: 0 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 12 Post(s)
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Originally Posted by surak View Post
Starting her off on a tandem may have the opposite effect. My stoker hasn't touched her bike since we bought our first of two tandems. We rented a hybrid tandem while on vacation and liked it enough to buy the entry-level Kent Dual-Drive. The Kent is definitely good enough for beginners.
I agree with this. We got started on tandems when our kids got too big for the trailer we pulled them in when they were babies. Now my kids are teenagers. We've done a fair bit of riding with them on back of tandems, but recently rode as a family with them on their own bikes and we were surprised by how much one of them struggled with basics like gearing, bike handling, and navigating roads. I don't need my kids to choose cycling as a lifelong love like I have, but I do need them to be prepared to get around town and get groceries on a bike in college, if necessary. So, we're going to do more family rides on our single bikes, even if they are short, to improve those skills.
qspencer is offline  
Old 07-10-19, 08:12 PM
  #10  
LV2TNDM
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Apr 2005
Location: Northern CA
Posts: 318

Bikes: Cannondale tandems: '92 Road, '97 Mtn. Mongoose 10.9 Ti, Kelly Deluxe, Tommaso Chorus, Cdale MT2000, Schwinn Deluxe Cruiser, Torker Unicycle, among others.

Mentioned: 1 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 54 Post(s)
Liked 4 Times in 4 Posts
She can learn. But don't use training wheels. They're the worst. They don't teach riding at all. If anything, they teach the new rider that leaning causes problems, which is the exact opposite of what learning to ride entails.

Have her ride a "skut" type bike. That is, a bicycle without pedals, cranks and chain, and with a saddle low enough where the rider can plant both feet firmly on the ground at the same time. Self-balancing and pushing quickly teaches the new rider the dynamics of bicycle riding.

If a tandem isn't a good introduction to the feeling of riding a single, then put her on the back of a motorcycle. This may more accurately teach the untrained rider what it feels like to carve turns on two wheels.

She can learn. I taught myself how to ride a unicycle in 12 days (at age 50). But the trick to learning was devoting time to it every day. Your brain needs regular exposure to learn a new skill. Instead of, say, spending three frustrating hours every month, spend a half hour to 45 minutes every day. This is the trick. Don't have any expectations at all. Just go out and have her do her best. Don't care at all what sort of progress occurs. Her brain will absorb and process the things she needs to learn along the way. And I'd be very surprised if she isn't riding in relatively short order.

Once she learns the dynamics of bicycle riding, THEN it's up to you to make sure she gets the KNOWLEDGE involved to safely navigate the environment and ride safely. Learning proper braking technique is a perfect example. A bicycle can stop you quickly and safely, or it can throw you over the handlebars. Learning how to prevent the latter can mean the difference between happy cycling and never riding ever again.

Good luck!
LV2TNDM is offline  
Old 07-12-19, 01:28 PM
  #11  
Leisesturm
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jul 2005
Posts: 4,094
Mentioned: 20 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 1362 Post(s)
Liked 63 Times in 52 Posts
Originally Posted by LV2TNDM View Post
She can learn. But don't use training wheels. They're the worst. They don't teach riding at all. If anything, they teach the new rider that leaning causes problems, which is the exact opposite of what learning to ride entails.
If the training wheels are mounted high enough so that the bike can lean, say 10* at least, then the rider will (can) learn how to balance (so the training wheels do not touch) but if they lose their balance the bicycle does not capsize. But we don't need to revisit this. The idea of using a stand scooter where the balance is as intuitive as the balance we use everyday to stand upright ... when you use a scooter which most people get the hang of in mere minutes, if not seconds, IMO that should have been a /thread post.

Originally Posted by LV2TNDM View Post
Have her ride a "skut" type bike. That is, a bicycle without pedals, cranks and chain, and with a saddle low enough where the rider can plant both feet firmly on the ground at the same time. Self-balancing and pushing quickly teaches the new rider the dynamics of bicycle riding.
I have never heard of a skut bike or ever seen one. That might present a problem to someone wanting to use one. In any case, such a purchase is guaranteed to be short lived in value and probably way overpriced for what it is. Can't recommend.

Originally Posted by LV2TNDM View Post
If a tandem isn't a good introduction to the feeling of riding a single, then put her on the back of a motorcycle. This may more accurately teach the untrained rider what it feels like to carve turns on two wheels.
Have you ever been on the back of a motorcycle? Neither a motorcycle or a tandem conveys to a rider the necessary coordination of balance instinct and vehicle control necessary to achieve success in operating a bicycle.

Originally Posted by LV2TNDM View Post
She can learn. I taught myself how to ride a unicycle in 12 days (at age 50). But the trick to learning was devoting time to it every day. Your brain needs regular exposure to learn a new skill. Instead of, say, spending three frustrating hours every month, spend a half hour to 45 minutes every day. This is the trick. Don't have any expectations at all. Just go out and have her do her best. Don't care at all what sort of progress occurs. Her brain will absorb and process the things she needs to learn along the way. And I'd be very surprised if she isn't riding in relatively short order. Once she learns the dynamics of bicycle riding, THEN it's up to you to make sure she gets the KNOWLEDGE involved to safely navigate the environment and ride safely. Learning proper braking technique is a perfect example. A bicycle can stop you quickly and safely, or it can throw you over the handlebars. Learning how to prevent the latter can mean the difference between happy cycling and never riding ever again.
I have put your final two points together because they outline my earlier 'not recommended' for the o.p.'s GF learning to ride a bike at 60y.o. Yes, she probably 'could' learn the actual operation of the bicycle. But, IMO, that's only the tip of the iceberg. The learning of the myriad nuances of operating a bicycle, even in the relatively protected confines of ... a park, for example, that's huge. Even without cars around, a park might still be a dangerous place to ride a bicycle for a cyclist without a lifetime of skills development. This is borne out in actual fact when you compare the accident rates of male and female cyclists. There are more male accidents yes but there are significant numbers of female accidents even where the actual number of female cyclists is insignificant. The o.p. is limited in how much information they can impart without looking like a control freak. It shouldn't be up to them to bring a novice rider up to full readiness in a short time. The tandem in this instance is a perfect tool. I had a number of relationships before I met my present wife. Most could ride a bicycle. None did though, with one exception and she only rode on the sidewalk. Needless to say I was not able to share my love of cycling with any of them. I do find it quite astounding that in over a dozen years of riding tandem on both coasts of the U.S. and also being members of a large tandem club with over 50 teams ... in all that time and among all those tandem aficionados we have never encountered another team where the Stoker is blind. Or a non-cyclists for that matter. All the stokers we know 'could' ride a single bike if they chose. They choose not to for social and companionship reasons. Ironic, because IMO what makes a tandem so special is that it allows someone not trained, or lacking sight or balance ability, to experience the freedom of rapid movement over the earth under their own power.
Leisesturm is offline  
Old 07-14-19, 05:40 PM
  #12  
LV2TNDM
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Apr 2005
Location: Northern CA
Posts: 318

Bikes: Cannondale tandems: '92 Road, '97 Mtn. Mongoose 10.9 Ti, Kelly Deluxe, Tommaso Chorus, Cdale MT2000, Schwinn Deluxe Cruiser, Torker Unicycle, among others.

Mentioned: 1 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Quoted: 54 Post(s)
Liked 4 Times in 4 Posts
Originally Posted by Leisesturm View Post
If the training wheels are mounted high enough so that the bike can lean, say 10* at least, then the rider will (can) learn how to balance (so the training wheels do not touch) but if they lose their balance the bicycle does not capsize. But we don't need to revisit this. The idea of using a stand scooter where the balance is as intuitive as the balance we use everyday to stand upright ... when you use a scooter which most people get the hang of in mere minutes, if not seconds, IMO that should have been a /thread post.




I have never heard of a skut bike or ever seen one. That might present a problem to someone wanting to use one. In any case, such a purchase is guaranteed to be short lived in value and probably way overpriced for what it is. Can't recommend.




Have you ever been on the back of a motorcycle? Neither a motorcycle or a tandem conveys to a rider the necessary coordination of balance instinct and vehicle control necessary to achieve success in operating a bicycle.




I have put your final two points together because they outline my earlier 'not recommended' for the o.p.'s GF learning to ride a bike at 60y.o. Yes, she probably 'could' learn the actual operation of the bicycle. But, IMO, that's only the tip of the iceberg. The learning of the myriad nuances of operating a bicycle, even in the relatively protected confines of ... a park, for example, that's huge. Even without cars around, a park might still be a dangerous place to ride a bicycle for a cyclist without a lifetime of skills development. This is borne out in actual fact when you compare the accident rates of male and female cyclists. There are more male accidents yes but there are significant numbers of female accidents even where the actual number of female cyclists is insignificant. The o.p. is limited in how much information they can impart without looking like a control freak. It shouldn't be up to them to bring a novice rider up to full readiness in a short time. The tandem in this instance is a perfect tool. I had a number of relationships before I met my present wife. Most could ride a bicycle. None did though, with one exception and she only rode on the sidewalk. Needless to say I was not able to share my love of cycling with any of them. I do find it quite astounding that in over a dozen years of riding tandem on both coasts of the U.S. and also being members of a large tandem club with over 50 teams ... in all that time and among all those tandem aficionados we have never encountered another team where the Stoker is blind. Or a non-cyclists for that matter. All the stokers we know 'could' ride a single bike if they chose. They choose not to for social and companionship reasons. Ironic, because IMO what makes a tandem so special is that it allows someone not trained, or lacking sight or balance ability, to experience the freedom of rapid movement over the earth under their own power.

You are definitely one of the most argumentative posters on this forum. Your replies almost never fail to deliver!


No, raising training wheels is NOT the solution. I've sold youth bikes with and without training wheels for years and watched them do a completely sub-standard job of "teaching" riding. But most parents grew up graduating from training wheels, so they simply feel that their child should learn the same way, and couldn't be convinced otherwise. And since "the customer's always right," any LBS with half a brain will sell the customer what they want instead of losing a sale by taking a staunch position on "proper" bicycle riding education technique. And back to the training wheels. They cannot be raised by much at all because once they're too high, the steep angle the bike reaches quickly exceeds the angle at which the training wheels can prevent fall-over. The only way to prevent this would be to make the training wheels stick out two to three feet from either side of the bike, making an effective 4 1/2 to 6 1/2 foot wingspan. This is completely unacceptable. So the industry has tried to make a compromise with a bike that stands on its own, provides a little lean (and I mean very little) so a new rider can at least move forward, learn how to steer and perhaps brake, while moving the pedals forward. Once speeds exceed probably 8 mph, training wheels become a liability. (Unless said rider is already experienced on two wheels and can overcome the training wheels' limitations.)


If you've never heard of a "Skut" bike, you've been living in a cave the last decade. At least five years ago they hit the youth market with gusto. And boy was their arrival welcome. Such a simple and elegant solution to teaching kids to ride and teach them quickly. Sure, they cost money, but finding them used on Craigslist is easy. And as a perfect coincidence, I JUST returned from Sports Basement where these "Skut" bikes are prominently on display and sale in their store(s). And even if you haven't heard of them, there's this thing called "the internet" to which anyone can avail themselves to which would show them exactly what I mean within a ten second search. And anyone with an ounce of resourcefulness would realize, virtually ANY existing (or new) bike can be made into exactly this bike by removing the cranks, rings, pedals and chain. Front derailleur too. So in other words, this solution is awesome for the adult who never learned. Take a properly-fitting adult bike, make some changes, and you have a really good "Skut-like" bicycle ready to go. And once the adult learns the dynamics of bicycle riding, you re-install the removed bits and you now have a fully-functional bike the new rider can now continue learning on. So in other words, my advice is not by any means "short-lived in value" and not worth recommending. It's a great idea!


Have I been on the back of a motorcycle? Why yes I have! A LOT! I spent much of my high school years on the back of a dual sport with a very well trained rider in front. And then I married a woman who had extensive rear-of-motorcycle experience which just happened to train her to be one of the best stokers around. I currently hold a motorcycle endorsement as well, so I'm pretty experienced as far as motos go. However, I very seriously consider the risks of motorcycling and prefer not to own and ride one regularly. (Anyone considering same should listen to last week's Fresh Air about Travis Rieder, the Johns Hopkins bioethicist who, after ten years of moto experience, got nailed by a van running a stop sign, completely mangling his left foot. He BARELY salvaged his foot through six surgeries and subsequently became addicted to opioids/opiates in the process. His story is an eye-opener on many fronts. Link: https://www.npr.org/sections/health-...-opioids-alone)


Your continuing to argue against the value of being on the back of a motorcycle or tandem is kinda silly. It's like saying, "being a passenger in a vehicle will NEVER teach someone to drive!" Sure, but it gives the person a REALLY GOOD IDEA of what driving a car feels like. Jesus, give it a rest!


And I think I was pretty clear about the learning curve of cycling. First are the actual dynamics of keeping a bike upright and moving forward. This is what the Skut bike teaches so effectively and quickly. Learning on a flat surface in a non-traffic environment presents very little risk to an older adult interested in riding. If you're THAT worried about the risks involved, I'd be surprised if you are comfortable with older folks hiking on slippery trails with steps, rocks and roots! OMG, the dangers involved! I went on in my post to point out the subsequent dangers cycling present riders. And that's separate from the initial learning. I'd ponder a guess that about 50% of older new riders, or less, would EVER feel comfortable participating in urban cycling or commuting. So that's where I leave it up to the teacher to take the reigns and inform the new cyclist of said dangers. Luckily today, many urban centers have very active bicycle coalitions who will teach new riders ALL ABOUT urban riding, avoiding pitfalls and common risks and dangers, and teach new riders how to navigate with as much safety as possible. But it would also inform many new riders that they simply do not want to share the pavement with other drivers of SUVs, trucks and buses. More power to them, I say!


Your tandem comments are spot on. They're a great way for a spouse to join in riding, whether or not they ride. I've participated in sight-impaired tandem events and had stokers join me who cannot ride half bikes. It's a great way to get people out.


In conclusion, it's amazing how many assumptions you make in your posts that end up being completely false. Don't assume someone referring to motorcycling would have no experience doing said activity. It would be much more appropriate to assume the opposite. Better yet, don't assume anything at all! Comments and discussion are welcome, but taking a scalpel to posts to argue virtually every point gets quite tiresome, especially when it's countering perfectly reasonable advice, based on over 20 years in the bicycle industry and 40 years riding.


But I'm sure that won't stop you!


Perhaps change your user name to "Sturm & Drang." "Leise?" hardly!

PS And assuming an "older" person probably shouldn't embark on learning something new is such an out-dated approach. The BEST thing many middle age and older folks can and should do is exactly that: learn something new! From learning a new instrument to a new activity, brain research seems to indicate that keeping the mind active is a great way to stave off dementia and other age-related brain degenerative diseases. "Smarter Every Day's" YouTube video of brain plasticity and learning to ride an opposite-steering bike is a really cool video on the issue. Challenge your brain, you'll probably live longer.

Last edited by LV2TNDM; 07-14-19 at 05:46 PM.
LV2TNDM is offline  
Related Topics
Thread
Thread Starter
Forum
Replies
Last Post
124Spider
Tandem Cycling
71
01-09-19 09:00 AM
Mayonnaise
Tandem Cycling
16
07-24-16 10:07 AM
jeneralist
Tandem Cycling
27
08-11-14 10:38 AM
roka
Tandem Cycling
6
12-10-12 04:07 PM
chefisaac
Tandem Cycling
43
09-24-11 09:29 PM

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off


Thread Tools
Search this Thread

Contact Us - Archive - Advertising - Cookie Policy - Privacy Statement - Terms of Service

Copyright 2018 MH Sub I, LLC dba Internet Brands. All rights reserved. Use of this site indicates your consent to the Terms of Use.