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Heart's Aerobic Range

Old 01-22-03, 02:23 AM
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oxologic
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Heart's Aerobic Range

Just to help slick1 out. The maximum heart rate (MHR) determined by 220 - age might be accurate for some, but many will find that it will vary either higher or lower. I know that I've hit 202 before, I'm 16 turning 17 this year. I've not like ever went all out to hit my highest heart rate, so I'm not really sure if it is 202. The Polar Fitness Test gets me a 205.

The aerobic range varies for people. The maximum aerobic range will be around 82% to 94% of your MHR. For fitter people, it would be close to the latter. It's like there are so many varied answers on the internet. Some people say it is from 83% to 92%, but it should generally be around there.

As for running, the heart rate will definitely be higher than when you are cycling at about the same intensity. Running comes smoothly when you do some speedwork, which is in fact your running economy increasing. The same goes for cycling. I feel much better on the bike as well, but people say that I look like a long-distance runner. So? The verdict is still out there.
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Old 01-22-03, 10:13 AM
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Hi oxologic-

I'm just going to give you some basics, then recommend some good books for reading on the topic so you can gain a better understanding of heart rate training.

First, it is good that you've figured out that 220- age is not accurate. It isn't. At the last lecture I attended regarding heart rate, I got the same reinforced facts- that 220- age is an archaic formula developed by some scientist who determined that a baby's heart rate at birth is 220, and every year the baby lives, it's heart rate declines by one beat per year (hence, subtracting your age from the 220). So how accurate is it? Well, can you take a baby and put them through a max heart rate stress test? No. Does it take into account hormones, which can affect max heart rate? No. There are many other factors that are not taken into account by this formula (or fable, as I like to call it).

Having said that, I believe that a lot of the self-administered tests out there are generalizations. If you get on one of those treadmills that do the self testing or you get a heart rate monitor that administers the self test, I don't believe it to be accurate. Even those machines have numbers programmed into them based on a generalization of a specific exercising population. All those tests do is test you against the generalized figures the machine has, then spits out a number for you to use. I don't believe in any test that doesn't slap a spirometer over your mouth, take blood every minute to measure lactate build up in the blood, and slap a heart rate monitor on you to correlate these different factors- all while you are performing your activity of choice. THAT'S the accurate way to determine heart rate. You can get pretty close with some tests, and I guess if you need to have something to go by, some kind of test is better than no test, but if you're serious about finding out what your heart rate max is for each of your sports, better to go to a sports performance lab and pay to have them test you. Try your local university. If they have a kinesiology or exercise physiology department, they may have the facilities to test you at.

Another good point that you brought up is that max heart rate is sport specific. Now, for the sake of avoiding the obvious arguments, YES... there is an ABSOLUTE maximum heart rate- how fast your heart will beat when stimulated. However, for the individual that trains in different sports, it is unrealistic to look at that number. Why? Because different sports, your heart rate varies. For instance, some reasons why heart rate is lower when swimming than when, say... running, is because in swimming, because the body is horizontal, rather than vertical, blood flow better circulates in the body. When you're running, the blood is forced to go to different limbs, sometimes working against gravity. This extra work for blood flow causes an increased heart rate. Also, with the body being in water, the water itself creates a coolant for the body, keeping heart rate down. When running, as the body heats, there isn't anything there in the air (unless running through cold gale force winds ;-) to cool the body down. The increase in heat causes heart rate to increase..... there are other differences. I can recommend some books on further reading if you're interested in reading about this.

Also, there are differences in max heart rate that is affected by genetics, heart size, altitude, hormones (which I mentioned earlier), number of mitochondria in the muscles, and fitness level. I had this conversation with an individual last night. He's 36 years old, and doing an estimated test on him (testing rate of perceived exertion against heart rate over a one hour period), we found his anaerobic threshold to be somewhere at a heart rate of 171. That made his estimated max hr 215. Of course, without doing a true test, we couldn't determine how close we were, but we did know one thing- the 220 minus age would not work for him. His heart rate is just what it is- doesn't mean he's stronger or faster or fitter than anyone else in the class- it just is what it is.

Let's address this comment you made:
____________________________________________________
The aerobic range varies for people. The maximum aerobic range will be around 82% to 94% of your MHR. For fitter people, it would be close to the latter. It's like there are so many varied answers on the internet. Some people say it is from 83% to 92%, but it should generally be around there.
____________________________________________________

The aerobic range is actually much lower than that for the average individual. Actually, for most individuals, the aerobic range is lower than that. Defining the aerobic range, in simplistic terms-it is during aerobic work the body is working at a level that the demands for oxygen and fuel can be meet by the body's intake. Once the body begins working at a level that exceeds the body's demands for oxygen, you begin to work at anaerobic levels. One of the ways aerobic intensity is measured is by what kind of fuel the body uses to provide the body with energy. At aerobic intensity, the body's promary fuel is fat. This breakdown of fat produces 36 ATP, carbon dioxide, and water. At anaerobic intensity, far less ATP is produced, as the body's primary fuel source shifts away from fat metabolism into carbohydrate metabolism, producing only 2 ATP, plus carbon dioxide and water. As you have much more ATP from fat metabolism, you can certainly see how you can maintain a workout for a longer period aerobically than anaerobically. ATP is the energy that drives the body's muscles, and if you're producing less of it, you can't spend as much time working out...... keep in mind that fat can only be metabolized in the presence of oxygen!!!! Check on the internet for the Kreb's Cycle or the Citric Acid Cycle to see the complicated steps behind how oxygen drives this phenomenon.

With a better understanding of what aerobic intensity is, understand that people who are less fit have much lower aerobic levels. Look at anaerobic threshold- when the demands for oxygen and fuel exceed the rate of supply and the muscles have to rely on the stored reserves of fuel. In this case waste products accumulate, the chief one being lactic acid. The muscles, being starved of oxygen, take the body into a state known as oxygen debt. For the untrained individual, anerobic threshold can occur at heart rates as low as 65- 70%. For the average training individual, it's more like 75- 80%. This means, for the average training individual, aerobic threshold starts somewhere around 75% and goes as high as 80%. For the professional athlete, training every day for years on end, they've managed to manipulate their anaerobic threshold very close to their maximum heart rate. Can an individual also work to get their anaerobic threshold higher? Yes. But unless they train like athletes, it is unlikely they will see very high anaerobic thresholds. Our typical example- look at Lance Armstrong. His anerobic threshold is somewhere around 177 beats, and his max heart rate is something like 185 beats (I believe, or somewhere in those numbers). For the average individual, this is almost unheard of. And other professional athletes are probably closer to Lance's differential for max heart rate and anaerobic threshold than ours.

Ok, check out some good books on reading. I gotta get ready for work, but I can contribute more later:

A good starter book:

"The Heart Rate Monitor Book", by Sally Edwards
"The Heart Rate Guidebook to Heart Zone Training", by Sally Edwards
"Periodization Training for Sports", by Tudor O. Bompa- good if you want to look at maximizing your training for different sports
"Precision Heart Rate Training", by Ed Burke
" The High Performance Heart: Effective Training for Health, Fitness and Competition With the Heart Rate Monitor", by Dr. Phil Maffetone

These are some great starter books, but start with the first book on the list, which gives a good guide for the beginner just starting out. Then pull out that high school biology book you've got for a quick review of the Krebs Cycle, and then read the other books. Practice what the books say, and you'll see over time how the principles of the book affects your training.

I'm sorry, I rushed and I have to get to work. So I may have summarized when I shouldn't have.... I can go into greater detail later in the day.

Good luck!

Koffee Brown
 
Old 01-22-03, 10:49 AM
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The above post is very helpful for me. I've only recently begun to monitor my HR and am trying to make sense of my current data. As a 39 year old using a different formula than the old one mentioned above, I arrive at a MHR of 186. With my zone set at 75%-85%, I cant seem to stay in that range. I've been riding on a trainer and before I purchased the monitor, I was riding 30-40 minutes at about 20mph. Now if I try to stay even close to 85%, I have to stay close to 17mph or my HR goes "too high". Was I previously riding at 90% of HR or, as suggested above, is my MHR simply higher than the formula indicates. Any ideas or suggestions would be appreciated.
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Old 01-22-03, 11:51 AM
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Originally posted by ridermark
Any ideas or suggestions would be appreciated.
A better way of determining training zones is to determine your HR at your Lactic Threshold (or anaerobic threshold, I think they're the same thing... Koffee?). Then, base the training zones around that, rather than your MHR. For a more in-depth discussion, check out The Cyclists Training Bible, by Joe Friel.
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Old 01-22-03, 01:13 PM
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There is a good Heart Rate calculator at Sally Edwards
web site HEARTZONES
The basic formula that she uses for Max Heart rate is:
(210 - 1/2 your age) (- 5% of bodyweight) (+4 for men).
I used all 4 of the suggested methods for finding Max heart
rate and this was within 2 BPM of all of em.
It is a little conservative but a whole lot closer than the
old 210 - age formula.
I'm very impressed with the HRM book for Indoor and
outdoor cyclists. Has some Very good workouts.

Marty
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Old 01-22-03, 02:35 PM
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thank you all for your reply. Now i have something to go by. it just confused me when people say to burn fat, you need to stay in your aerobic range.

you cant tell me that if my aerobic range is between say 120BPM and 160BPM and i go for a run every night and my heart rate is around the 150-170BPM that i wont loose fat.

i would say that my body fat is around 10% (measured by the scales you buy which are "meant" to tell you how much body fat you have by standing on them so running out of my aerobic range would still be beneficial in loosing body fat.

thanks again and more reading to get the myths seperated from the facts.


BTW. HOw acurate would those scales be where you type in your height be in measuring body fat

slick1:confused: :confused: :confused:
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Old 01-22-03, 05:49 PM
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Taking my explanation one step farther-

As I stated earlier in my post, I think there is only real way to measure heart rate. Specifically, you can use the test I mentioned, using the spirometer, take blood to measure increased lactate in the blood, a heart rate monitor, and measure rate of perceived exertion in a timed setting and a controlled environment to measure two things- maximum heart rate and anaerobic threshold. This is not to say you can't use the test to measure other things either, such as measuring at what point the body stops using fat metabolism as it's primary fuel source and when the body starts using carbohydrate metabolism for it's primary fuel source and measuring VO2 max. To keep everything on a more basic level, I only mean to talk about max heart rate and anaerobic threshold.

Personally, I prefer measuring for anaerobic threshold, or latic acid threshold- the point when the body goes into oxygen debt because the demands the muscles make for oxygen exceeds the amount of oxygen uptake from exercise exertion. I don't think it's necessarily the better way to quantify heart rate, but I do think it's a safer way to measure it- I don't know what the situation of the people around me are medically, so I don't test them on heart rate max. It's too strenuous. I do like the idea of measuring anaerobic testing- over a 1 hour period, I believe you can accurately and safely measure anaerobic threshold with a proven protocol to within a few beats of a $300 laboratory test. However, since all it can do is accurately predict anaerobic threshold, which can give you a predicted max heart rate for the sport you test in, it is not as accurate as going into a lab and having the test performed upon you by trained professionals who work with the advice of your physician. What I glossed over this morning is the fact that an anaerobic threshold test done under the conditions I described can pretty accurately (within 2- 10 beats, in my opinion) determine what your anaerobic threshold is. I assume that the anaerobic thresholds of people I work with (unless they tell me they are professional athletes) are at 80% max heart rate. If they are new to exercise, I lower their anaerobic threshold to 75% and let them get into shape first. Then I re-test everyone every 3 moonths. If they've been eating right and training smart, they will hopefully see a change. Sometimes, it takes about a year for people to see a change in their heart rates. Testing anaerobic threshold over time is a great way to check and see how your cardiovascular fitness increased. Too many people rely on the things they can see- like fat loss, fitting into clothes, etc. This is yet another way to quantify improvement. Once you do determine anaerobic threshold at 80%, you can take that number that is on your heart rate monitor and get the rest of the numbers for your heart rate scale. So, for me, my own anaerobic threshold is 167. I can now look at a performance-based heart rate chart, and I see my 90% as 189, my 100% as 210, my 70% as 147, my 60% as 125, and my 50% as 105. Now, I can put together a strong periodization program based on my new numbers (a year and 3 months ago, my anaerobic threshold was at 162) to work on improving my cardiovasular fitness levels.

I think Joel Friel's "Cyclist Training Bible" is an excellent book, but if you are not really as versed as you'd like to be with this stuff, the other books I recommended are a bit easier to read and break it down a bit more.... however, I would swear on it in open court as a true book that every person who owns a bike should have. When I got the book, I couldn't believe I waited so long to get it. At the very least, if you're not feeling confident with this stuff, get the Sally Edwards book, "The Heart Rate Monitor Book".

Ridermark, I see your problem right away- you are using a calculation rather than getting tested- either an accurate self test (and really not self tested.... it's better to have someone there to monitor the time and check heart rate and make sure you are on track with the test) or go pay to have a test performed at a performance training lab or a kinesiology lab at a university. Because if you use a formula that generalizes, you could end up working in a range that is too high or too low for you to handle. So if you end up in a range too high, you're overtraining, and you're causing more harm to yourself than good by straining to stay within ranges that your body is not supposed to be in. If you end up in a range too low, you end up not working out hard enough to see the fitness results you want to see. That's why it's so important to be right with those numbers. If you're more than 3 beats off, I could see someone having some problems down the road. 3 beats too high or too low, and according to my (performance based) heart rate chart, you're in a new training zone you shouldn't be in. Not good.... Hmmmm..... if I look at my perfomance based heart rate chart, I see that if your maximum heart rate is 186, then your chart looks like this: 95%- 177, 90%- 168, 85%-159 , 80%-149 , 75%-140 , 70%- 131, 65%- 122, 60%- 112, 55%- 103, and 50%- 94. So, if you are looking for your 75- 85%, you should be working out at 140- 159. I don't know what numbers you are using so far, but what are the numbers you say are 75- 85%? And how do you really know if this 186 is your real max? And regarding your attempts to try to stay at 85% hrmax, don't try it. A true 85% hr max attempt would last maybe 3- 5 minutes (in the more trained average individual) before your body went into oxygen debt such that you would need to slow down enough to go back to aerobic training levels to bring more oxygen back to the muscles. The less trained may only be able to tolerate levels of 85% hr max for maybe 1- 2 minutes. To train at that level for such a long time means you would need to spend a lot of time preparing and training the body for a heart rate that high. Why don't you send me a PM, and I could send you a test you could administer that would give you more accurate and realistic numbers you can work with?

Slick1 mentioned something I see people struggling with a lot- that is, the harder you work out, the more fat you'll lose. Disregard how much fat you have on your body, and let's just go to the basic facts. I capitalize to emphasize only, but FAT IS ONLY BURNED IN THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN- this means, if you are working out at an anaerobic level (anaerobic meaning "without oxygen"), you are not burning fat. How could you, when oxygen, which is needed to drive the Kreb's Cycle, is not present? No Kreb's Cycle, no fat metabolism. No fat metabolism, means the body automatically goes to the body's other stored energy supply- glucose. As anaerobic breakdown is much less sufficient, resulting in 2 ATP's as the end product (see my earlier post for details), Anaerobic training can only happen in short time intervals (at higher anaerobic levels, a couple of short burts of energy before you have to take a longer rest interval ) until the muscles need to slow down and revert to aerobic levels to increase the oxygen supply, thereby driving the Kreb's Cycle to produce more ATP needed to get the muscles going again. Knowing all this, and going back to Slick1's original question- no.... fat is not lost if you decide to work out hard enough to take you high enough into your anaerobic training zones so that your body is mainly using carbohydrates as your primary energy source. You are still burning some fat, and that is very much true, but the higher your heart rate when you work out, the less fat you burn, and the more carbohydrate you burn instead as your fuel source. Running out of your aerobic range would be great to increase your cardiovascular fitness, but if you're going too high over say... 80% or anaerobic threshold, you are not fat burning as much as working on improving cardiovascular fitness. A great book that breaks this down is Sally Edward's "The Heart Rate Monitor Book for Outdoor and Indoor Cyclists". In the first few chapters, Sally devotes a great deal of it to breaking down the zones by percentages, and gives the breakdown of what fuels are used in each zone by the body. She has an incredible book, and I am always totally wowed when I read her books or hear her speak. I highly recommend anyone to read this book (AFTER reading her book "The Heart Rate Monitor Book" if you need to understand the basics first).

One last thing- I think it's better to have some measurement of some kind than nothing at all- I always applaud people for trying. But if you really want to be serious about your training, you have to get more accurate measurements than the 220 minus age, or some other calculations. For the record, I don't believe in scales, but again, something is better than nothing. If that's all you've got, hey... I ain't gonna mess with what works for you. Do what you can, and work to get better. Do the best you can with what you've got.

K Brown

Last edited by koffee brown; 01-22-03 at 06:27 PM.
 
Old 01-22-03, 08:36 PM
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Koffee,

I just started out on the Sally Edwards training program,
Got the HRM book for Indoor and Outdoor Cyclists, and
its way different than what I'd been doing before.
Do you teach the HeartZones method?
I've been trading e-mail with Kathy Kent and would
love to get a HZ seminar done here in the Dallas Area.
I'm gonna talk to LBS about it later in week.

Marty
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Old 01-22-03, 10:02 PM
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Yes, I teach Heart Zones.

I also know Kathy well... she's a very enthusiastic person. I'm sure you'll enjoy having her out there in Dallas. I've been working with HeartZones now for a few years. Informally since 1999, and through the company since 2001. I also attended their first conference in Dallas in October and I look forward to their next conference this Oct. It should be fun.

Maybe I'll see you there?

K B
 
Old 01-23-03, 01:36 AM
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Wow Koffee Brown, that's really long, but sure useful. I'll read it thoroughly after this reply. Anyway, was there anything wrong about what I wrote?
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Old 01-23-03, 05:17 AM
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Hope nobody objects if I add this link to another HRM thread. Koffee & others had some really good contributions, including a do-it-yourself way to determine your anaerobic threshold.
HRM?

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Old 01-23-03, 01:54 PM
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Originally posted by Koffee Brown
Yes, I teach Heart Zones.

I also attended their first conference in Dallas in October and I look forward to their next conference this Oct. It should be fun.

Maybe I'll see you there?

K B
As long as it isn't on the Ride For the Roses weekend, yes
I will be there. When is it? I haven't heard anything about it
and it isn't on the web site.
Hmmm, you teach HZ? I could spend all day thinking up
questions etc. but will refrain. . .
If I am at the HZ conference I will be sure to look you up!

Marty
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Old 01-23-03, 03:54 PM
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To summarize. . .

Testing for max HR is extremely difficult, potentially dangerous, inaccurate and unreliable outside of a laboratory and, generally, unnecessary.

Testing for anerobic threshhold is more easily done outside a laboratory than testing for MHR, so, therefore it will be more accurate for the average person (assuming he/she understands what AT is and how to arrive at it).

Since AT is more easily determined, it is easier to establish training zones and to do so with more confidence.
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Old 01-23-03, 10:17 PM
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Woody-

Good summary. Thanks.

Marty-

The next HZ Convention is in Seattle on the first weekend of October. Your Ride for the Roses should be safe. You should come. If you bring your bike, we could go for a ride. There's a hostel out there on Union Street a few blocks from the conference site, so it's easy to get to. Send me a PM later in the year if you can make it.

Here's the test for anaerobic threshold. You can get it from Sally Edwards/Sally Reed book- "The Heart Rate Monitor Book for Outdoor and Indoor Cyclists", pp. 92- 94. The test is done on a stationary bike or indoor cycling bike.

The top of Zone 3 is 80%. The top of Zone 2 is 70%. The bottom of Zone 2 is 60%. The bottom of Zone 1 is 50%.
______________________________________________________
2X20 Anaerobic Threshold Test

This is an anaerobic heart rate test designed by David Martin, Ph.D. at Georgia State University. The goal of this workout is to sustain the highest heart rate number you can for 20 minutes, followed by a 5 minute recovery and then sustain the same number again for 20 minutes. After completing both 20 minute intervals, answer the question: Was that hte hardest I could work for the duration of time (40 minutes)? If the answer is yues, then that heart rate number is an excellent estimate of your anaerobic threshold heart rate.

Purpose
Anaerobic theshold is one of the ways of measuring fitness. The higher the percentage of maximum heart rate you can sustain for the duration of the test, the fitter you are. This translates into being able to cycle faster for a longer duration. If you have never done this test before ou may want to be conservative the first time until you get the feel for what is happeniing and what is expected. Retest in a month or six weeks to see if you are getting fitter. It is important that you are fully rested before doing this test and that you give yourself a minimum of 48 hours of rest from riding above heart Zone 3.

Workout Plan
Warm up for 5 minutes to the bottom of Zone 2, then gradually increase heart rate for the next 5 minutes until you reach the heart rate number that you thinnk you can sustain for 20 minutes. Sustain that number for 20 minutes. You may choose to use cadence, resistance/gearing or any combination you wish to sustain the heart rate. After 20 minutes, recover to the bottom of Zone 2 for 5 minutes. Make sure you drink plenty of water and allow your legs and body to relax.

After 5 minutes of recovery begin to increase your heart rate agian over the next 3 minutes until you have reached the same heart rate number that you sustained for the first 20 minutes. Sustain that heart rate for a second 20 minutes, then warm down over the next 7 minutes to Zone 1.

________________________________________________________

Keep in mind, you are looking for ONE NUMBER.... not a RANGE OF NUMBERS... Often, I'll run through the first 20 minutes with my students, then when I talk to them in the 5 minute break, they say something like, "oh, I was between 156- 160". Aaaaaaaugh!!!!!!!!!! You are looking for that one number, not a range. So if it's 160, it's ONLY 160... not a range of different numbers that's "around" 160.

This is just a taste of the test, but there's a performance based heart rate chart that you can look at to find that number for anaerobic threshold (80%), and easily read the chart for the rest of the numbers in your heart rate ranges. That's why I suggest you get the book. It's also a great book because it gives outdoor and indoor training exercises you can do to improve your fitness level. If you don't have the book and you want to do the test right away, go to the website: https://www.heartzone.com/index.shtml
Over there, click on the link that says "HEART RATE CALCULATOR". About halfway down the page, there is a heart rate calculator that you can use that will break your heart rates down into zones. You will have to fiddle around with max heart rate, since you didn't test for max hr, but if you keep entering numbers in the max heart rate, you'll eventually find the correct numbers to use. I used my example of 160 as my anaerobic threshold (80%), and I started by entering 195 as my max (guessing). It was a bit low, so I entered 200 as my max hr, and this time, I got correct numbers, because the 80% on the chart came out at 160. I hope that makes sense. If it doesn't, get the book.

I could have sworn someone asked about VO2 max, but I don't see it, and I can't remember what the question was... if you did, post it again, and I'll take a look at it.

Koffee
 
Old 01-25-03, 09:38 PM
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read John Douillard's book Body, Mind, and Sport for a different approach to training. it is based on auyerveda medicine. it is by far the best book on training i've ever read. the first half of the book deals with determining your body type (there are three), then follows information on diet, training times based on cycles, and sports for specific body types. the second part of the book deals with your training methods. the method he advocates is to train "in the zone" for maximum performance. you do this by learning to regulate your breathing together with with controlling your heart rate. the heart rate you train at is MUCH LOWER than you would normally think. you must read this book with and OPEN MIND to take full advantage of it. he trains Martina Navratolova, among others, who said she wished she had trained with him in the beginning of her carreer. i would especially reccomend this book to anyone just getting back into sports, older people, people with nagging injuries. i personally use his training methods and the results have been incredible. I'm 50 years old, and i've got my resting heart rate down to around 42 ( i'm trying to get into thr 30's) and i never get sore or injured. do yourself a favor and read this book, you won,t be sorry.
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Old 01-26-03, 06:16 AM
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bikebrat
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Koffee - It's great to hear from someone who clearly has an in-depth understanding of heart rate, aerobic and anaerobic threshold, etc. - since I have a few questions!

First, in the absence of laboratory testing, I've used a calculation that I'm not sure I saw referenced in this thread, that - based on how I "feel" at various heart rates - I think comes a lot closer than the 220 minus age. - It starts with 220 minus age, but then subtracts resting heart rate. You then apply the percentage you want to work at, and then add your resting heart rate to the product. At age 48,with a resting heart rate of 45, this formula gives me 140 for 75%, compared to 129 based on 220 minus age, or 153 for 85% as opposed to 146. - Does this make some sense?

Okay, that's my calculation question . . . Now, to the "practical applications" questions . . . Since this winter has been so bitterly cold and snowy/icy compared to last winter, I have spent a lot more time in the gym - spinning, treadmill and weights - and paying more attention to my heart rate monitor, and would love to understand a few of the things I am discovering. So, if you can help, would love your answers to the following:

1) When doing a spinning class interval ride, during a hard effort, my heart rate will hit between 155 and 160 for the 30 to 60 seconds that we are sprinting, or whatever . . . and by the end of the effort, I am either breathless, or my legs feel like they couldn't sustain the speed (or resistance, as the case my be) a second longer - or, more often than not, both! - And yet, when we do an endurance ride, I have found that my heart rate just gradually increases, and after 30 minutes or so, I'm feeling so good in the mid-140s that I increase my speed or resistance, and move easily to 155, and am able to sustain that rate for much longer - AND, it doesn't "feel" anywhere near as difficult as that same rate feels during an interval ride. - Is this typical? Why is this? And what should it mean for my training?
2) There are some days (usually after several days in a row of intense training, including strength work) when my legs get in the way - i.e., my legs just can't take the necessary resistance and/or speed to get my heart rate up over, say 65%. One of the spin instructors keeps trying to tell me it's lack of oxygen, but that makes no sense to me . . . since I'm not having any trouble breathing and my heart rate is staying relatively low - my legs are just sore or fatigued. Am I right in thinking that there are times when your muscles can not keep up with what your body is capable of aerobically?
3) Finally, before I do weights, I spend 10 to 15 minutes on the treadmill and get my heart rate up to about 65% to 75%, just to warm up. But, during the actual weight lifting, my rate generally stays below 50% - sometimes WAY below. - Is this typical for weight training? (I am generally doing 3 sets of 15 to 20 reps, and the weight I use brings me to near failure at the end of the 3rd set.) Does this mean I am not burning any fat when doing weights? Does it matter? I mean, am I still building muscle?

Thanks . . . I look forward to your answers.
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