View Single Post
Old 12-26-15, 08:13 PM
Senior Member
Join Date: Nov 2004
Posts: 20,651
Mentioned: 557 Post(s)
Tagged: 1 Thread(s)
Quoted: 3671 Post(s)
Likes: 0
Liked 1,087 Times in 810 Posts
Asian Serial Number Guide

Many of you will be aware of my penchant for collecting and analyzing serial numbers. This guide compiles the results of a decade of data collection of pre-1990 Asian serial numbers.

The guide is not necessarily comprehensive, as it only represents what has been collected and decrypted. The level of confidence in the decryption is high, unless otherwise stated, though it is dynamic and may not be 100% accurate. Contract manufactured brands are cross-reference to the manufacturer. The nationality of the brand owner ( pre- 1990) is stated in parentheses. Anybody having any further data, insight or corrections can contact me via the forum's private message process. Hopefully, it is self-explanatory with the use of the following legend:

F indicates an alpha character designating the fortnight (i.e. A= weeks 1-2, B=weeks 3-4,....Z = weeks 51-52)

M indicates an alpha character designating the month (i.e. A = January, B= February,... L = December)

Y indicates an alpha character designating the year . The year that corresponds to a particular alpha character can vary significantly. The specific convention will be listed under the manufacturer entry.

mm indicates two numeric characters designating the month (i.e 01 = January, 02=February,..... 12= December)

y indicates a numeric character designating the last digit of the year (i.e. 1 = 1971 or 1981, 2 = 1972 or 1982, etc.). With such codes, you have to determine the decade based on frame characteristics, components, etc.

yy indicates two numeric characters designating the last two digits of the year (i.e. 81 = 1981, 82= 1082, etc.)

xxxx indcates a numeric characters designating the sequential frame number within a the fortnight, month or year. This number string is typically four to six characters in length but can vary.

AMERICAN EAGLE (USA): see Kawamura.

AMERICAN FLYER (USA): see Kuwahara.

APEX (USA): See Kuwahara

APOLLO (Canada): See Kuwahara.

A-PRO (Taiwan): Insuffcient data.

ARAYA (Japan): ARYMyxxxxx

ASCENTE (Canada): See Hodaka

AZUKI (USA): See Kawamura, Kuwahara, Giant.

BIANCHI (Italy): See Hodaka, KHS, S(1)

BONTEKOE (Netherlands): see Miki

BRIDGESTONE (Japan): Myxxxxx & Fyxxxxx.
Grant Peterson, who was designer for Bridgestone starting in the mid-1980s, has stated that the alpha character is a month indicator, however, apparent fortnight indicators a high as "T" have been seen as early as 1973. The formats are easily confused with Miyata.

CAMPANIA (?): See K(1), S(1), Y(1).

CENTURION (USA): See Fairly, Katakura, Matsu****a, Mikki, N(1), Tano, U(1).

CENTURION (Germany): see Merida, Java Perdana

CHIMO (Canada): Insufficient data.

C. ITOH (Japan): See Bridgestone.

CONCORD (USA): See Dodsun, Kuwahara.

CORSARO (USA): See Nissan

CYCLONE (Japan): Insufficient data.

CYCLE PRO (USA): See Dodsun, Kawamura.

D(1) (Japan): DyFxxxxx or DyMxxxxx. Inusffient data to determine if 3rd character is a fortnight or month indicator. Identity unknown but since format turns up primarily on Zebfrakenko and Zebra, it may be Kenko.

DIAMOND BACK (USA): See Fairly, N(1), U(1).

DODSUN (Taiwan): Insufficient data, but format appears to be DSBMymmxxxx(x) & DSym mxxxx(x) based on limited small size.

EDDY MERCKX (Belgium): See Miyata.

EMPEROR (Japan): Insufficient data.

FAGLUM (Sweden): See Miki

FAIRLY (Taiwan): Fymmxxx(xx)

FEDERAL (Indonesia); Insufficient data but starts with FC. First numeral may be year indicator. Also see Kuwahara.

FERRARE (Japan): Insufficient data.

FISHER (USA): See Toyo

FOCUS (Japan); See Araya

FUJI (Japan): P designates assumed production facility codes with known characters including F.G. I,J, K and M.

1971-1974: PyMxxxx, where years are based on the Imperial Japanese Calendar (i.e. 6 = Showa 46 = 1971, 7 = Showa 47 = 1972, 8 = Showa 48 = 1973, 9 = Showa 49 = 1974).

1975-1979: yyMxxxxx

1980-1989: PMyxxxxx

1984-1986 Special Series: Myxx(x)

Also see Fairly, for entry models contract manufactured in Taiwan.

GAN WELL PRO (Japan): See Yamaguchi

GENERAL (USA): See Merida

GIANT (Taiwan):

1978-1986: Gmmyy on rear dropout.

1987-1989: GFyxxxxx

GITANE (France): See Nissan

GT (USA): See Hodaka, Fairly, Toyo

HIRAME (Japan): See Kuwahara

HODAKA (Taiwan): HyMxxxxx

HUNTER (?): See Yamaguchi

IMPREX (?): See Fairly

INTERNATIONAL (Canada ): See Bridgestone

ITOH (USA): See Bridgestone.

JAMIS (USA): See Fairly, Hodaka.

JAVA PERDANA (Indonesia): JPyFxxxx Due to insufficient data, fortnight indicator may be a month indicator.

JET (?); See Bridgestone.

JUPITER KING (Japan): See Sank.
K(1) (Japan): KyMxxxxx Same as early 1970s Fuji format. Possible Fuji division or contractor.

KABUKI (Japan, USA): See Bridgestone, Nissan.

KAMRA (japan): See Kawamura

KATAKURA (Japan): KMyxxxxx Format easily confused with Kawamura.


Pre-1975: KSxxxxxx

1975-1987: PYxxxxx, where P indicates the market (A = Australia, C = Canada, E = Europe, K = USA 1975-1984 and late 1980s non-ferrous frames, W = USA 1985-1987). Y designates year where E = 1975, F= 1976,.... J=1980, then A = 1981, B=1982, ... G= 1987. Easily confused with Katakura format.

KENSTAR (Taiwan?): Insufficient data.

KENT (Taiwan?): Insufficient data.

KHS (Taiwan): ymmxxxxx. See also U(1).

KING (USA?): Insufficient data.

KOBE (USA): Insufficient data but some may be Bridgestone manufacture.

KOGA-MIYATA (Netherlands); See Miyata

KUWAHARA (Japan): yy mmxxxx(x) Also see Federal.


LOTUS (USA): See Pacific, Tsunoda, Yamaguchi.

M(1): Unknown manufacturer, frame date code format appears to be MCAmmyy

MAIKO (USA?): See Kawamura, Kuwahara, Giant.

MARUISHI (Japan): Unknown, but format appears to be Y?xxxxx based o n very limited sample size. Year indicators appear to be A =1971,1981,etc, , B = 1972, 1982, etc. Second alpha character appears to be either fortnight or month indicator. Easily confused with Tsunoda.

MATSURI (?): See Nissan.

MATSU****A/NATIONAL (Japan): yMxxxxx

MERIDA (Taiwan): Insufficient data, but format appears to be MyMxxxx(x) based on limited sample size. Month indicator could turn out to be fortnight indicator. Also reported to use My??xxxx, where ?? is two letters. Somes uses a space or hyphen in front of Mxxxx number string. Easily confused with Miki , use country of origin decal, if present, to identify,

MIELE (Canada): See S(1).

MIKADO (Japan): See Miyata.

MIKI (Japan): MyFxxxx

BF member Hummer believes 3rd character is a month indicator using A to M, with I omitted.

MIYATA (Japan):

1972-1984: Yxxxxxx, where A = 1972, B= 1973,....M= 1984.

1985-1989: YFxxxxx, where N=1985, O = 1986,...S=1990.

Format change occurred in late 1984, during model year change. Easily confused with Bridgestone.

See also Dodsun and U(1) for some late 1980s contract manufactured models.

MITZUTANI (Japan): Insufficient data.

MONGOOSE (USA): See Merida.

MOTIONCRAFT (?): See Miki.

NIKO (USA); Niko was the private label brand of retail and mail order store Bikecology. Owner, Alan Goldsmith, also worked for Western States Imports (Centurion) . While I have no Niko serial numbers, 1980s Niko models do strongly resemble Centurion and owners are suggested to check the serial number formats of Centurion contractors.

NISHIKI (USA): See Araya, Dodsun, Fairly, Giant, Katakura, Kawamura, S(4)

NISSAN (Japan): YFxxxxxN based on limited size. All end with 'N', which is believed to represent Nissan Cycles, which appears on a sticker on some bicycles. The first alpha character appears to be the year with C = 1980.

NASHBAR (USA): see Maruishi

NORCO (Canada): See Dodsun, Kawamura, Miki, Yamaguchi.

NOVARA (USA): See Fairly, N(1).

N(1) (Japan): NyFxxxx Manufacturer unknown. Some members believe that the 'N' prefix designates National but given that Panasonic and the Japanese manufactured Schwinns that came from Matsu****a/National do not use this format, it seems unlikely. There is evidence suggesting Tano, the major supplier to WSI/Centurion, though the format is different from that use in the 1970s.

BF member Hummer believes that the 3rd character is a month indicator with the 12 months being represented by A, B, D, E, G, H, K, L, M, N, P & S.

PACIFIC (Taiwan): Pyxxxxxx

PANASONIC (Japan): See Matsu****a.

PARKPRE (USA): Insufficient data.

PEUGEOT (France): See Araya, Merida

PISCEAN (Taiwan?): Insufficient data.

RALEIGH (UK): See Merida, Miki, N(1).


RENSHO (Japan): Insufficient data.

REX/REX II (Japan): Insufficient data. AKA Criterium Rex, the head badges on these bicycles denote Araya manufacture. They appear to be 1970s forerunners of the Araya branded bicycles of the early 1980s, but with a different serial number format. The format is similar to Bridgestone & Miyata, though frame characteristics, notably the distinctive seat stay caps, are different.

RITCHEY (USA): See toyo

ROYCE UNION (Netherlands): Insufficient data.

S(1) (Japan): MSyxxxxx

S(2) (Japan): SyFxxxx

S(3) (Japan): sMyxxxxx

S(4) (Japan): Sy mm xxxx(x)

SAINT TROPEZ (?): Insufficient data.

SAKAI (Canada): See Miki, Yamaguchi

SANKI (Japan): Symmxxxx based on very few samples, low confidence

SANWA (USA): See Dodsun. Miki

SAVOY (?): Insufficient data but based on head badge, appears to be a sister brand to Royce Union.

SCHWINN (USA): See Bridgestone, Giant, Matsu****a, S(3).

SCOTT (USA): See Fairly.

SEKAI (USA 1974-1983, Canada 1984-1990): See Dodsun, Fairly, Fuji, K(1), Matsu****a, Miki, Yamamguchi, Y(1).

SEKINE (Japan): Insufficient data, but format appears to be Ym(m) xxxx(x) based on limited sample size. Year indicators appear to be V= 1970 or 1971, W = 1971 or 1972, etc.

SENATOR (?): Insufficient data.

SHIMANO (Japan): Shimano manufactured complete bicycles from September 1950 to May 1954 but these are extremely rare. After that, Shimano would commission frames to build up and use for displays at bicycle shows but these were generally high end models. Most Shimano bicycles that surface have been rebranded by their owners. Consequently, there is too much variation in serial number formats to list.

SHOGUN (Japan): See Merida, Mikki, S(1), S(2), N(1), Yamaguchi.

SILK (Japan): See Katakura.

SKYWAY (Japan): See Bridgestone

SOMA (USA?): See Kuwahara.

SPECIALIZED (USA): See Giant, Miyata, S(1), Toyo

SPEEDWAY (USA): See Kuwahara

SR (?): See Araya, Miki.

STEVE BAUER (Canada): See Yamaguchi

ST. TROPEZ (?); See Pacific

SUCHIA (?): Insufficient data.

SUPERCYLE (Canada): See Bridgestone


TAKARA (USA): See Fuji, Kuwahara, S(1), S(4), Y(1).

TANO (Japan): not yet decoded

TEAM CHANCE (Canada): See Hodaka

TOYO (Japan): ymxxx(xx) through at least 1984. Tyxxx(x) at least as early as 1988.
Exact year of crossover yet to be determined. Old format easily mistaken for Matsushiita/Panasonic.

TSUNODA (Japan): Unknown, but format appears to be YFxxxxx though correlation for Y has not been determined. Some members believe that Tsunoda was only a trading company and not a manufacturer but Lotus bicycles often have labels stating "Made by Tsunoda Japan" and similar statements can be found in Lotus literature. Easily confused with Maruishi format.

U(1) (?): Uymmxxxxx Manufacturer unknown. These codes start appearing on Centurion and Diamond back models in the very late 1980s. It is known that China Bicycle Company started supplying entry level models to Western State Imports at this time, just before acquiring WSI in late 1989 and this would appear to be the logical manufacturer but bicycles with this S/N format have been reported with Made in Taiwan labels and CBC was located in China.

UNION (Netherlands): see Miki

UNIVEGA (USA): See Merida, Miyata, Dodsun, Giant.

UNIVERSITY (?): Insufficient data.

VENTURA (?): Insufficient data.

VISTA (USA): See Araya.

VOLKSCYCLE (USA): Insufficient data.


Y(1) (Japan):Yyy mmxxxxx Manufacturer unknown but circumstantial evidence indicates it may be the pre-1980 Yamaguchi format.

Y(2) (Japan): YLyMxxxx Manufacturer unknown but may be for Yamaguchi aluminum frames as these typically surface on brands of aluminum frames who used Yamaguchi as a source for their aluminum frames.

YAMAGUCHI (Japan): YyMxxxx. To date there have 11 letter codes reported for the 3rd character (A through N, skipping D, I & J), so it is believed to be a month code. Of the 3 missing codes, D is probably the legitimate code.

There has been some speculation whether Yamaguchi is the manufacturer for this format but samples have been reported with Yamaguchi labels.

YOKOTA (Japan): Insufficient data.

ZEBRA (Japan?): See D(1).

ZEBRAKENKO (Japan):See D(1).

Last edited by T-Mar; 12-12-20 at 09:49 PM.
T-Mar is offline